1×1 Rib Knit

A rib knit is produced using a style of knitting pattern which yields a distinct vertically ridged pattern known as ribbing. A 1×1 Rib knit is created when the rows of the “knit” and “purl” stitch are identical.

2-Needle Stitching

See Double-Needle Stitching

2-Way Zipper

A zipper with two zipper pulls so the garment can be unzipped from either direction.

2×1 Rib Knit

A rib knit is produced using a style of knitting pattern which yields a distinct vertically ridged pattern known as ribbing. A 2×1 Rib knit is created when there are two rows a “knit” stitch and one row of a “purl” stitch.

4-Needle Stitching

A finish commonly used on a sleeve or bottom hem that uses four needles to create parallel rows of visible stitching, giving the garment a cleaner, more finished look, as well as adding


50-percent cotton/50-percent polyester fabric; also referred to as “poly/cotton”.



To roughen a mesh surface, yielding what is termed “tooth”.


Property which causes paper to take up liquids or vapors in contact with it. In optics, the partial suppression of light through a transparent or translucent material.


Direct premium offered by a bank or savings institution to a depositor opening a new account.


Silk like in appearance and feel. Resistant to stretch and shrinkage. Fiber- forming substance is cellulose acetate.


Written notice to a distributor from a supplier that an order has been received.


Soft and woolly. Appearance varies from smooth and thin to a thick woven texture. Springs back when crushed.


A set of technologies created by Microsoft to enable interactive content on Web sites. With ActiveX, Web sites can be animated using multimedia effects, interactive objects, components that use COM (Component Object difference is that ActiveX is an exclusive Microsoft and sophisticated applications that create a user experience comparable to that of a high-quality CD-ROM. The same effects can be experienced with Java, Shockwave and Flash — the difference is that ActiveX is an exclusive Microsoft product making use of ActiveX Controls. ActiveX programs or “controls” are among the many types of components that use COM (Component Object Model) technologies to provide interoperability with other types of COM components and services. ActiveX controls are the third version of OLE controls (OCX), providing a number of enhancements specifically designed to facilitate distribution of components over high-latency networks and to provide integration of controls into Web browsers. These enhancements include features such as incremental rendering and code signing, to allow users to identify the authors of controls before allowing them to execute. Put more simply, an ActiveX Control is an applet based on Microsoft technologies that enables interactive content on Web pages.

Ad Copy

Lettering imprinted on any item. Usually an advertiser’s name, sales message, trademark or slogan.

Advance premium

Merchandise given to a new customer on the condition that he or she earns it via a later purchase.


Purchaser of specialties. Also know as an end-user or buyer.

Advertising specialty

Useful or interesting article or merchandise, usually carrying an imprinted advertising or promotional message, given with no obligation. Also known as a giveaway, incentives or promotional product.


Imitation lace made on a Schiffli loom. The end result of the aetzing process.


The process of eliminating the base fabric leaving only the threads remaining, resulting in lace.

AI (or) .ai

Adobe Illustrator

Air Jet Yarn

A spinning technology which spins a single type of yarn or with a blend of filament yarns which provide for a virtually “pill free” fabric


Graphic technique in which ink is applied with compressed air, similar to spray painting, to render a soft, airy effect.

Allan Solly

A set-on placket, but it is sewn to the inside of the garment. The face of the placket is made of the front of the shirt.

Allen Solley Placket

A one-piece placket that’s hidden after being sewn. This process utilizes the existing fabric for the outside placket face.


Continuous embroidery which covers all of the fabric from selvage to selvage.

Analog color proof

Off-press color proof made from separation films.

Anniversary plan

Goodwill-building promotion in which employees or customers receive a specialty or business gift on their hiring anniversaries.


The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is an organization that promotes standards for industry and government. Most often refers to safety colors.


A finish or treatment that inhibits the growth of bacteria.


A term used for a garment that is able to resist, either naturally or chemically, the effects of microbial secretions put off by the human body, resisting odor and increasing garment life.

Anti-Pill Finish

A treatment applied to the fabric primarily to resist the formation of little balls on the fabric’s surface due to abrasion during wear. See Pilling.


Prevents the accumulation of static electricity and helps keep the fabric from clinging to the wearer or to other garments.


a.k.a. “app” “program” “software” Used interchangeably with program and software, this is a general term for a program that performs specific tasks, such as word processing, database management, e-mail sending or retrieval, or Web browsing. Unlike system software, which maintains and organizes the computer system (such as the operating system), an app is an end-user program.


A separate, pre cut piece of fabric that is decorated (or decorated and then cut), then applied to another piece of fabric, typically a garment.


1. An embroidered motif, aetzed or cut, which can be used as a separate embroidered figure (Schiffli embroidery). 2. Fabric, which may or may not be previously embroidered, sewn to another piece of fabric or to a garment.


Multicolored diamond pattern used in knitwear, especially socks and sweaters.


All illustration copy used in preparing a job for printing.

Art proof

Artwork submitted for client approval, usually a black and- white stat of the camera-ready art.


Acronym for American Standard Code for Information Interchange. The general specification of bits in a computer to input, store, process, and output text characters.

Attachment (or) attached file

a.k.a. “enclosure” A file (or group of files) that is included (or “attached”) with an e-mail message. You can attach files through almost any popular e-mail program, such as Eudora or Outlook Express. Usually, this is accomplished by simply clicking the “attach file” button and then browsing through your computer system to find and select the desired file or image. Be careful with attachments, however, as they stay on your computer unless you go into your attachments folder and delete them. The best thing to do if you want to save an attachment is to open it, do a “save as,” and put it in a folder on your computer. That way, you can routinely go into your attachments folder and delete them all without worrying about losing one you want. Never open any attachment you receive from someone you do not know; it may contain a virus.

Author’s alterations (AAs)

Changes in type at the proof stages, made by and chargeable to the client.


Recognition merchandise, often personalized, used to acknowledge performance or milestones.


Baby herringbone

Herringbone knit using fine yarns resulting in a lighter and smoother fabrication.

Baby pique

Pique knit using fine yarns – same as baby herringbone.

Baby Pique Knit

A knitting method that creates a fine, small textured surface that appears similar to a very small waffle weave. Also see Pique Knit.

Back locker pad

An additional piece of material that is sewn on the back of a shirt beneath the collar. It is semi-circular in shape and is designed to add strength to the area of the shirt that will experience stress from being hung from its locker loop (see Locker Loop entry) or simply hung by its collar from a locker hook, etc.

Back Yoke

A piece of fabric that connects the back of a garment to the shoulders. This allows the garment to lay flat and drape nicely.


Woven or nonwoven material used underneath the item or fabric being embroidered to provide support and stability.


An insignia of identification

Banded Self Collar

A type of collar made of the same material as the shirt. The two basic kinds of this collar are the simulated, made of two pieces, or the true, made of four pieces.


A specialized sewing stitch designed to provide immense tensile strength to a seam. Commonly used at stress points.

Basket weave

A variation of the plain weave in which two or more threads are woven side by side to resemble a “basket” look. Fabrics have a loose construction and loose appearance.

Basket weave

Variation of the plain weave in which two or more warp and weft threads are woven side by side to resemble a “basket” look. Fabrics have a loose construction and a flat appearance.

Beaded placket

Design detail at the opening of the placket that is formed by rolling the underside of the top placket to the face creating a piped or ridge detail at the edge. Sometimes the beading is in a contrast color.

Bean Stitch

Three stitches applied back and forth between two points, in the same space as one regular stitch. This stitch is used to provide secure registration in place of a repeated, single stitch outline that may not align a repeated, single stitch outline that may not align a repeated, single stitch outline that may not align properly.

Bedford cord

A cousin of corduroy, but without the filling yarns that make the elevated wales that are characteristic of corduroy. This strong and durable cotton fabric has slightly raised ridges that flow lengthwise.


Lustrous durable fabric with heavy crosswise ribs, used to make coats and suits.


Any downloadable file that contains more than simply human-readable, ASCII text. Typically it refers to a runnable program available text. Typically, it refers to a program available for download, but it can also refer to pictures, sounds, or movies, among other things. Most newsgroups have subgroups specifically for binaries; a posting in comp.sys.mac.comm might announce that a program is available for download, but the binary (the file itself) would be found in comp.sys.mac.comm.binaries. Newsgroups, such as, contain files for download (in this case, pictures). You will need a newsreader to download and decode binary files.

Binary numbers

A numbering system with a base (radix) of 2, it is unlike the numbering systems most of us use, which have bases of 10 (decimal numbers), 12 (measurement in feet and inches), and 60 (time). Binary numbers are preferred for computers, for precision and economy. Building an electronic circuit that can detect the difference between two states (high current and low current, or 0 and 1) is easier and less expensive than building circuits that detect the difference among 10 states (0 through 9). The word bit is derived from the phrase Binary digit.


A strip of material sewn or attached over or along the edge of something for protection, reinforcement or ornamentation.

Bio washed

Caps are dyed normally and then very gently washed with stones in a chemical solvent to create a very subtle worn look.


Basic Input/Output System (pronounced: buyohss) A technical computing term used to describe what is coded into a PC’s ROM to provide the basic instructions for controlling the system hardware. The operating system (OS) and application programs both directly access BIOS routines to provide better compatibility for such functions as screen display. Some makers of add-in boards, such as graphics accelerator cards, provide their own BIOS modules that work in conjunction with (or replace) the BIOS on the system’s motherboard.


Also known as bio-polishing or enzyme treatment. This is a chemical process to remove short fibers from fabrics so that the finished fabrics can have a cleaner surface. The process weakens the fibers so that they are more readily to break off, thus improve the pilling resistance but at the same time reduce the bursting strength of the fabric. Since the treatment is done in an acidic condition and at high temperature, noticeable color change will be unavoidable so usually this process is done before dyeing.

Bird’s eye

A two color fabric design associated with double-knit fabric.

Bird’s eye

Small diamond pattern accentuated by a dot in the middle, resembling the eye of a bird. Commonly used in suiting’s.

Birdseye Jacquard

A small geometric pattern with a center dot knit into the fabric.

Birthday plan

Sale whereby employees or customers receive a specialty or business gift on their birthdays.


Basic unit of digital information.

Blanket cloth

Thick heavily full woolen fabric with a softly brushed finish similar to an actual blanket, used for outerwear.

Blanket Stitch

A decorative stitch often used to finish an unhemmed blanket. The stitch can be seen on both sides of the blanket or other garment.


Undecorated items or apparel; also refers to “blank” goods.

Blatt Stitch

A term used in Schiffli embroidery, referring to zig zag stitches laid close together. In Multihead embroidery, the term is Satin Stitch

Blazer cloth

General term for a variety of flannels and meltons used to make blazers.

Blazer cloth

General term for a variety of flannels and meltons used to make blazers.


A yarn or a fabric that is made up of more than one type of fiber.


Two or more types of staple fibers in one yarn to achieve color mixtures, unusual dyeing variations, or better performance characteristics. The most common blend is cotton and polyester.

Blind embossing

Design stamped without metallic leaf or ink, giving a bas-relief effect.

Blind hem

A hem wherein only very tiny tack stitches appear on the fabric surface. Not always secure when sewn on knits, so may unravel after washing.

Blind Stamping

Hot-stamping without fail. The approach, used often with leather, gives a more subtle imprint than hot stamping and a shallower imprint than debussing.

Blind stitch

Stitching that is not easily seen or noticed.


Bitmap Any picture you see on a Web page is a bitmap. Bitmaps come in many file formats, such as GIF, JPG, TIF, BMP, PCT, PCX, and DIB (Device Independent Bitmap). They can be read and edited by paint programs and image editors such as Photoshop or Paint Shop Pro. As its name suggests, a bitmap is a map of dots or pixels. If you zoom in or try to scale up a bitmap, it will look blocky.


A pre-wound reel or spool of thread, usually plain white. The contents of the bobbin, the bobbin thread, are stitched to the back of the fabric.

Boiled wool

Thick dense fabric that is heavily fulled to completely obscure its knitted construction. It has the suppleness of a knit, with the ability and shape retention of a woven fabric.

Bonded Fleece

Multiple layers of fleece are bonded together with an adhesive, resin, foam or fusible membrane to form a higher functioning garment.


The technique of permanently joining together two fabrics or layers of fabrics together by a bonding agent into one unit.


The joining together of two fabrics permanently with a bonding agent (also known as heat sealing).


A sharp pointed instrument used to puncture goods, part of the Schiffli embroidery machine.


Open-work incorporated into embroidered designs; a sharp-pointed instrument punctures or bores the fabric, and stitches are made around the opening to enclose the raw edges.

Borrowed interest

Technique in which a marketer associates a promotion or product with a better-known property for the purpose of attracting attention or implied endorsement.


French for buckled, curled or ringed. It describes a knitted or woven fabric characterized by loops, knots, or curls on one or both sides, made with a variety of looped, curled, or subbed yarns in one or both directions.


A yarn with loops producing a rough, nubby appearance on woven or knitted fabric.


When an e-mail message cannot get to its recipient for some reason, it is returned or bounced to the sender, with an error message informing the user that it was not sent. This is also known as “bouncing back.” You may hear someone say, “I tried to send you an e-mail message but it got bounced back.” If this happens to you, check the e-mail address and contact tech support at your ISP.


Bonus direct-mail offer sent along with a premium won or earned by the consumer.

Box Pleat

A single, uniform fold in the center back of a garment to allow for more room and comfort.

Boy short

Women’s underwear characterized by its full-back coverage and its similarity to men’s knit boxer shorts.

Break for color

To separate, by color, elements to be printed in different colors.


The movement of water or water vapor from one side of the fabric to the other, caused by capillary action, wicking, chemical or electrostatic action.


When a fabric allows vapors to pass through its fibers.

Bright’s (Color Families)

Grouping made up of vibrant, primary colors such as blue, green, red, and yellow.


The projecting edge of a hat.


Close plain weave fabric made of cotton, rayon, or a blend of cotton or rayon with polyester. The term broadcloth is also used in reference to a plain or twill weave wool or wool-blend fabric that is highly napped (brushed) and then pressed flat


A close plain-weave fabric made of cotton, rayon or a blend of cotton or rayon with polyester.

Broken link (or) broken graphic

A link that no longer works or a graphic that does not appear when a Web page loads are said to be broken. In other words, when a link or image is clicked on and it does not take you to the correct the link is broken. When an image doesn’t load, and instead you see the alt text or some generic icon shapes, it’s a broken graphic. Broken links and broken graphics occur for several reasons: the server hosting the Web site has shut down temporarily or has been restarted; the Web site has moved to an entirely new server; the file or files have been moved or deleted; or the HTML code is incorrect


Used to view and navigate Web pages and other information on the World Wide Web.

Browser compatibility

A term used to compare the way a Web page looks on one WWW browser as opposed to another. For example, if you view on Netscape, it will look pretty much the same as it does on Internet Explorer (illustrating browser compatibility). Some time ago, though, if you viewed on the AOL browser, it would’ve looked jumbled (a case of browser incompatibility). The reason these incompatibilities exist relates to the way a browser interprets the code that creates a Web page (HTML). Browser compatibility can also refer to cross-platform compatibility, which is, for example, the way a page renders or displays on a Windows system as opposed to on a Mac. The differences are usually very slight, however, just enough to annoy some Web designers and their clients into spending great time and energy on beta-testing a Web site with every browser on every type of system. Browser compatibility is often mentioned in conjunction with the term browser support, but the two should not be confused.


A finishing process for knit or woven fabrics in which brushes or other abrading devices are used to raise a nap on fabrics or create a novelty surface texture.


Finishing process for knit or woven fabrics where brushes or other devices are used to raise a nap in fabrics to create a novelty surface texture. Used mainly in fall or winter seasons because of its warm feel.


Liner which adds support to the front of a cap.


Stiff fabric used to give shape and form to items like caps, belts, etc. Also used to stabilize embroidery edges.


A stiff backing fabric that is often used to facilitate embroidery and add structure to cap fronts.


Manufacturer’s identification mark printed on a form or product, usually in an inconspicuous area.


A hand made emblem, made with brass or silver hollow thread. These finished emblems are a product of India or Pakistan.

Business gift

Merchandise given by a business for goodwill, without obligation to its customers and employees. Also known as an executive gift.

Button-Down Collar

Found on many men’s woven dress shirting’s, where the collar’s wings can be buttoned to the front of the shirt, minimizing the spread between the wings.

Button-Through Sleeve Placket

A small placket located near the end of the sleeve, by the cuff, which contains a single button closure.


Opportunity for travel incentive participants to purchase part of a trip if they do not fully qualify by sales performance.


Unit of digital information, equivalent to one character or 8 or 32 bits.



Computer Assisted Design/Computer Assisted Makeup or Manufacturing.

Calvary twill

Strong rugged fabric with a pronounced twill line on h a steep 63-degree twill weave, worsted yarns and a very tight weave. Used for sportswear, uniforms, coats, and suits.

Camera-ready art

Any drawing, photos, illustration or lettering suitable for photographic reproduction.


Prior to the modern method of digitizing on-screen, an enlarged picture or cartoon of a design was drawn, using the industry-standard six to one ratio (the cartoon being six times larger than the resulting design).

CAS (Certified Advertising

Designated industry title signifying that the holder has


A luxury fiber obtained from the soft fleecy undergrowth of the cashmere goat.


Method in which molten metal is forced into a mold of rubber or plaster, then cooled into the desired shape.

Catalog price

Price of a product shown in a supplier’s catalog. There can be no requirement, implied or expressed, by the supplier that the price be adhered to by any person selling that product. Also known as Suggest List Price.


Heavy, firm, strong plain weave or basket weave fabric often made of cotton. It is produced in many grades and qualities and may have a soft or firm hand.


Compact Disc – Read Only Memory An optical storage technology that stores and plays back data. “Read only” means the information on the disc may be capable of being displayed or used but not deleted. CD-ROMs are commonly used for encyclopedias, dictionaries, and software libraries, and they are also used for multimedia applications. One CD-ROM can hold around 650 megabytes, or the equivalent of 700 floppy disks. CD-ROMs have become a favorite medium for installing programs, since they cost only slightly more to manufacture than floppy disks and most major software applications would require at least five floppies. Most computers now have a CDROM drive. Don’t sound hopelessly out of touch with technology—be sure to use the term “CD-ROM” to refer to the technology or the discs, but not to the hardware you play the discs on; that’s a “CD-ROM drive.”

CDR (or) .cdr



Computer Graphics Metafile

Chain Stitch

Named for its resemblance to a chain link, this stitch is usually applied using a single head embroidery machine.

Chain stitch

A machine stitch forming a chain on the underside of the fabric.

Chalk stripes

White or light-colored stripes woven against a dark background, like a chalk mark on a blackboard. They are usually more widely spaced than pin stripes.


High-quality, lightweight, especially soft fabric made with tightly spun worsted yarns and a plain weave, although sometimes a twill weave is used. Originally printed with small floral designs, now also made in plain colors and dark all-over prints. Used for scarves, blouses, and dresses.


Plain weave fabric usually of cotton, rayon, or a blend of these. Chambray usually has yarn dyed yarns in the warp direction, and white yarns in the filling direction. It is often made in striped patterns. It is also frequently made with indigo or pigment dye to face with multiple washings.


A plain woven fabric that can be made from silk or manufactured fibers, but is most commonly cotton. It incorporates a colored warp and white filling yarns.


A lightweight plain-woven fabric used for shirts and linings. Typically made of cotton, chambray can also be woven of silk or synthetics.


A form of embroidery, widely used in the college apparel markets, in which a large loop stitch is left on the top of the fabric. This embroidery utilizes the chain stitch described above. Uses heavy yarns of wool, cotton, or acrylic. Also known as loop piling.


Broad term for rough surfaced, heavily fulled woolen or worsted fabrics used to make suits and overcoats.


Twill weave fabric with a slight sheen, often made in a bottom weight fabric of cotton or cotton/polyester. Frequently, it is made of combed, two-ply yarns in both warp and filling and vat-dyed in khaki.

Chino Cotton

A sturdy, medium weight twill cotton fabric used for uniforms and sometimes work or sports clothes.

Clean-Finished Placket

Typically the interfacings of plackets are raw or edged, which means they can look ragged or uneven, particularly on light-colored shirts. By cutting the interfacing in a rectangle, turning the edges under and fusing them in place, there is a straight placket with no raw edges. All that shows inside the shirt is the smooth edge.

Clean-up charge

Factory charge added for the labor costs involved in cleaning the printing press after using a nonstandard ink. Also known as a wash-up charge.


Individuals who buy promotional products from distributors.


Exclusive adidas technology providing Sweat and heat management through ventilation and moisture management.


Exclusive adidas technology. Light, breathable fabrics that conduct heat and sweat away from the body to keep the wearer comfortable and dry in warm conditions.


A lightweight, breathable shell that keeps wind, rain and snow out while allowing heat and sweat to escape through evaporation. CLIMAPROOF® locks out energy sapping weather extremes so you stay dry and comfortable in even the harshest conditions. Don‘t just suffer through the wind, snow or rain, bend the elements to your will with the help of three CLIMAPROOF® elements for apparel: ClimaProof® Wind, ClimaProof® Rain and ClimaProof® Storm.


Hot-stamp procedure where the desired logo/copy is foil hot-stamped on a solid brass or metal base, then covered with epoxy dome.


Product in which a colored paste, made from ground glass, is applied to recessed areas, then fired at 1400 degrees and polished by stone and pumice to achieve brilliant color. Since gullies and ridges separate each individual color, fine lines between them are difficult to achieve.


Cyan, magenta, yellow, black subtractive colors for process color reproduction.


The upright or turned-over neckband of a coat, jacket or shirt.


A trim around the neck of a t-shirt or sweatshirt.

Collateral materials

Advertising materials that are not transmitted to consumers via traditional ad media, such as catalogs, shelf cards, posters, specification sheets and trade information materials.


Premiums designed to have inherent value based upon their perceived collectability.

Color Block

Merchandising and/or cutting term whereby a certain type or block of colors ends up in the same place every time on the finished garment.

Color correction

Any method, such as masking, dot-etching, re-etching and scanning, used to improve color rendition.

Color families

Traditional tones are classic and timeless shades often deep and saturated. These colors include navy blue, forest green, burgundy, olive, along with khaki and cream.

Color proof

First or early printing of a finished color ad, combining impressions from each of the separate progressive color plates.

Color Separation

Separation of multicolored original art by camera or laser-scan techniques to produce individual separated colors. There are four common separations: yellow, magenta, cyan and black.


Prevents the dyed color of a garment from fading due to sunlight, body moisture, laundry bleaches, or stained removal.


A dyed fabric’s ability to resist fading due to washing, exposure to sunlight and other environmental conditions.


A term referring to the permanence and durability of the color of a fabric or print. A colorfast garment, embroidered design or screen print is usually fade- and run-resistant when exposed to washing, abrasion and the sun.

Column Stitching

Tightly placed zig zag stitching. Straight or curved, it is commonly used in lettering and in bordered. Also known as Satin Stitching or Steil stitching.


Although it’s in all capital letters, COM is not an acronym. It’s a contraction of communications, and it’s used to describe the serial port on a PC. COM is generally used in conjunction with a number, as in COM1, COM2, COM3, or COM4 (for example, a printer port).

Combed cotton

Cotton fibers that have undergone an additional processing step beyond carding ( the basic pre- spinning procedure that produces uniform, continues strands of fiber). The combing process produces fibers that are more uniform in diameter, which make a more desirable and expensive yarn.

Combed/Combed Cotton

A process by which the short fibers of a yarn are removed and the remaining longer fibers are arranged in parallel order for a high quality yarn with excellent strength, fineness and uniformity.

Combination sale

Tie-in of a premium with a purchase at a combination price; sometimes self-liquidating; on an on-pack.


Mechanical process in which knit fabrics are compressed in the lengthwise direction to tighten the construction and control shrinkage.


Process that compacts the space between fabric fiber pockets. This will prevent cotton shrinkage.

Complex Fill

A digitizing term used to describe a pre-defined section of a design that includes areas of knock out (fabric show through).

Comprehension Straps

Straps which securely hold the inner contents of a bag.

Comprehensive layout

Final stage of a layout, finished to very closely resemble how the printed piece will look.


The process of making computer data smaller so less is needed to represent the same information and, consequently, the information takes up less disk or file space and may be transmitted in less time.

Compression Molded

A solid, pre-formed molded panel that is created using compression.

Computerized composition

All-inclusive term for the use of computers to automatically perform the functions of the hyphenation, justification, and page formatting.

Condensed Format

Type of embroidery machine output format. The recording of only the points digitized which are later expanded to include all the stitches the machine will stitch in the format required.

Consumer promotion

Program which uses premiums or other incentives to get buyers to sample, purchase or remain loyal to a product or service.

Container premium

Product packed inside a special reusable container packaging.


Textual information, images, art, diagrams, videos that appear on the Web site.

Content management

Process by which information is modified on a Web site.


Competition based on skill, in which prizes are offered. Proof-of-purchase is usually required with entry.

Continuity program

Promotion in which a set of related specialties or premiums are offered over a period of time.

Continuity promotion

Supermarket or other retail plan. (See Piece-a-Week and/or Tape Plan) Term may also apply to Coupon Plan.

Continuous tone art

Photography, painting or other piece of art in which black-and-white tones gradually merge into one another.


Using an embroidery thread color different from the color of the garment. For example, yellow and white thread used to embroider a navy blue shirt.

Controlled-markdown plan

Retail stamp or tape-redemption program that apples all markdowns to a limited group of grocery items and restricts them to loyal customers.

Cool & Dry®

Yupoong moisture management technology

Cool Knit

A variation of pique that results in a different texture and surface appearance. It resembles a “waffle” pattern.


A mesh liner used inside Adams Headwear which is designed to promote cooling and minimize staining.

Coolmax® Extreme

wicking performance fabric that moves moisture away from the skin, keeping people cool and comfortably dry all day long

Cooperative (Co-op) program

Arrangement whereby the marketing elements(usually dealers) of a company order specialties from a specific distributor who has been awarded the exclusive right to imprint the corporate logo, in return for advantages to the company and dealers.


Thread colors are chosen that coordinate with the garment. For example, a navy blue shirt with a dark green collar and cuffs would have a dark green embroidery.


Written content of advertising or editorial matter in the media.

Copy testing

Tests to determine consumer response to advertising copy and more broadly, to the total content – written and visual – of advertisements.

Cord locks

A stopper or toggle on a draw cord that keeps the cord from retracting into the garment.


A cut filling pile cloth with narrow to wide ribs. Usually made of cotton, but can be found in polyester and other synthetic blends.


A durable woven cotton fabric that is often used in its medium-weight form for items such as shirts, slacks, jackets, and trim. Its most recognizable characteristic is its lengthwise wales (also known as cords).

Cost per inquiry

Cost to generate an inquiry in direct-response advertising. Calculated by the total cost of the direct response advertising divided by the number of inquires it generates.

Cost per thousand (CPM)

Traditionally called CPM, because the “M” represents the Roman numeral for thousand. The figure is calculated by dividing circulation or audience by a thousand and dividing the result into the cost of the advertising unit.


Soft vegetable fiber obtained from the seedpod of the cotton plant.


Grown on a cotton plant, the desirable fibers are harvested from within the speed pod. Average fiber length ranges from 1/2″ to 2″ long. The highest- quality fabrics are derived from Pima and Egyptian cotton, which typically produce fibers that are longer than 1- 1/2″.

Cotton Sheeting

Plain-weave cotton fabric, usually prelaundered, used for fashion sportswear. It’s wrinkled to create crinkle cotton.


Coarse, uneven yarns are made from lower grade short staple cotton fibers into less expensive fabrics.


Smooth, even yarns are made of long staple cotton fibers into fine weave or fine gauge knit fabrics.

Cotton-ring spun

Spinning process that further refines a yarn to achieve the desired yarn size. This results in a smoother and more uniform yarn and produces fabrics that take dyes evenly and have superior hand feel.


Fabric that goes through a brushing process to raise the nap and give the garment a soft hand.

Coupon plan

Program in which premiums can be earned by accumulating proof-of-purchase coupons, labels or other tokens.

Cover seamed

Two needles are used, to overlap the threads underneath, reinforcing the seams with a smooth layer of threads. Provides a look similar to double needle stitching.

Cover stitch

Multineedle decorative topstitch traditionally used on underwear, T-shirts, henleys, and long johns, but more recently used as a fashion/design detail on a variety of knits.

Cover stitching

Using two needles to overlap threads underneath, covering the over-edged seams with a smooth seamed layer of threads.


Double- needle stitch that is used to secure seams while also lending a finished look. Cover stitching is often found around armholes and the cuffs common to knit shirts.


The geographic area reached with specified intensity by an advertising medium. Also that reaction of an audience that is reached one or more times by a particular advertising schedule.


Rugged, water-repellent fabric made with a compact twill weave and tightly twisted worsted yarns. Usually, two shades of a color are twisted together, creating a two-ply yarn with a flecked or specked appearance. Used for top coats, suits, and sportswear.

Credit-card offer

Direct mailing to a credit card holder, offering merchandise. It often uses premiums or sweepstakes to close a sale or trial-offer acceptance.


Textured surface fabric found in both woven’s and knits. It can be used in knits as the reverse side of a special jacquard. A crinkly surface is achieved via use of high twist yarns, chemical treatments, weave, construction, or some form of embossing or surface treatment. Crepes are available in an unlimited variety of fibers and blends and in may different constructions.

Crew Collar

A rounded, ribbed collar cut loose to the neck.


This type f collar is considered a “collarless” look on a shirt, which is characterized by a cuff-like, rounded finish.

Crinkle Cotton

Cotton that is given a crinkled, lightly wrinkled or pleated appearance through chemical treatment or mechanical means. The treatment gives added texture to the garment.

Cromalin proof

Chemically created facsimile of a full-color reproduction.


To eliminate a portion of a picture, illustration or photography that contains unnecessary material, or to highlight a certain area of the image.

Crop marks

Indicators on artwork to show where an illustration is to be cut or sized.

Crop Top

A shirt style made to expose the midriff.

Cross grain

Grain or fibers stitched diagonally or irregularly.

Cross Grain

The term “cross-grain” in the US refers to the direction perpendicular to the length-of-grain (selvage edges), not the diagonal of the fabric

Cross platform independence

Feature on the Web enabling people from different computer systems to easily access information on the Web.


The upper-most part of the cap of a hat that is sewn to either a hatband, brim or sweat band.


Person who receives the advertising specialty from the buyer, often a client or prospective client of the buyer. Also known as the recipient.


Broad term encompassing all plates associated with letterpress and hot-stamp printing.


This refers to the number of needles per inch produces a 22-cut fabric. Higher cuts equate to finer fabrics.

Cut charge

Factory charge for producing a cut.

Cyber store

Virtual shop on the Web enabling transactions.



In general, data is information, factual information such as text, numbers, sounds, images, anything that can be processed on a computer. Data also represents concepts, and sensations that are suitable for communicating, interpreting, or processing. As futurist Marshall McLuhan said, “The electric light is pure information,” meaning everything perceptible is data. The word data is plural; the singular form is datum, however data is commonly used to refer to both singular and plural.

Dealer incentive

Premium, merchandise or travel offered to a retailer with the specified purchase of a product. Also called a dealer loader or dealer premium.

Deboss and color-fill

Combing hot-stamping with debossing, so foil fills an image that is pushed down into the product


Depression of an image into a material such as paper, leather or suede, so the image sits below the product surface.

Decal transfer

Imprinting method in which the decal is printed on an offset or letterset press, submerged in water and placed on the product. Excess water and air squeegee off and the product is kiln-fired, a process that fuses the decal with the glaze.


Descriptive audience statistics that reflect consumer qualities like age, sex, race, income, residence, and education level.


A system of measuring the weight of a continuous filament fiber. The lower the number, the finer the fiber; the higher the number, the heavier the fiber.


A cotton or blended fabric with right- or left-hand twill construction. The wrap is usually dyed blue with a white filing.


Twill weave, yarn dyed fabric, usually made of cotton/polyester blend. The warp yarns are colored and the filling yarns are white.


Woven cotton fabric, usually of medium weight, that is commonly used for making shirts, slacks and jackets. Indigo blue is its traditional color.

Denim weights

Weight is determined by weighing one yard of fabric. Some popular denim weights are: 5 oz., 7 oz., 9.5 oz., 10 oz., 11.5 oz., 12 oz., and 14.5 oz.


Amount of stitches in a given area


Another name for any fabric with a visible twill line.


Mold into which molten metal, plastic or other material is forced to make a specific shape. Also, a tool of veryhard material used to press a particular shape into or onto a softer material.

Die charge

Charge by the supplier for creating a die from artwork supplied by the supplier.


Process where molten metal is injected into the cavity of a carved die.


Using sharp steel blades to cut shapes from printed sheets.


Steel plate engraved with the desired image, generally used to apply a gold or silver imprint.


Method of producing emblems and other flat specialties. A blank, cut from a metal sheet, is struck with a hammer that holds the die.

Digital artwork

Artwork created using computer-assisted design software.

Digital color proof

Off-press color proof produced from digital data without the need for separation films.


1. to transform graphical input data into digital form for computer processing; to transform graphical input data into digital form for computer processing. 2. to assign a discrete numeric value to an analog variable by analog-to-digital conversion; to assign a discrete numeric value to an analog variable by analog-to-digital conversion.


To translate a graphic design or text into computer language ( digital values) for output from computerized embroidery machines onto substrates.


Computer peripheral device that converts an analog signal (images or sound) into a digital sound.

Dimensional Stability

Refers to the tendency of a garments to shrink or distort after washing. A garment that is dimensionally stable is one that is likely to maintain its intended shoe through many washings.


Resin is applied to finished garment. The garment is then creased and dipped in a vat of chemicals to set in the resin.

Direct house

Company that manufactures advertising specialties and sells them through its own sales force. Also know as direct selling house.

Direct response

Advertising that attempts to generate orders directly to the manufacturer or service rather than through stores, dealers, or agents.

Direct seller

Item that serves as a door-opener, sales-closer, or party incentive.


Ad medium that employs the postal system to deliver advertisements to prospects.

Display premium

Form of dealer incentive which is part of a point-of purchase display. May be a sample of a consumer premium or a functional element of the display.


A decorative weave, usually geometric, that is woven into the fabric. Standard dobby fabrics are usually flat and relatively fine or sheer.

DOC (or) .doc


Donegal tweed

Woolen tweed fabric that originated in Donegal, Ireland, characterized by thick, random, multicolored slubs.


Specialty offered by a salesperson to persuade potential buyers to listen to a sales presentation, or to initiate interest in a product or service for a follow-up sales call.

Double Dry®

Wicks perspiration for a dry-all-day feel. Disperses moisture for faster drying. Keeps body temperatures lower so you can play in cool comfort

Double Knit

A circular knit fabric knitted via double stitch on a double needle frame to provide a double thickness.

Double knit

Fabric knitted on a machine by interlocking loops with a double stitch (two sets of needles). Contrasts with single needle construction. Double knit fabrics are heavier than single knit fabrics.

Double-faced fabric

Thick, heavy, reversible fabric made by weaving two separate cloths together with an extra binder in the warp or filling. Also called double cloth.

Double-needle hem

Much like a cover-stitch in which two rows of stitching are sewn parallel to each other. This technique is used to securely hem a garment and give it a more finished appearance.

Double-Needle Stitching

A finish commonly used on a sleeve or bottom hem that uses two needles to create parallel rows of visible stitching, giving the garment a cleaner, more finished look, as well as adding durability.


The soft, fluffy under feathers of ducks and geese. Services as an excellent thermal insulator and padding for bedding, sleeping bags and outerwear.


To transfer a file(s) from another computer to your computer. There are a few methods of doing this on the Internet. HTTP, FTP and as E-mail attachments are the most common. When you “load” a Web page into your browser you are essentially “downloading” the page from the server it is hosted on. One of the most resourceful things about the Internet is that you can download almost any type of computer file or program. Lots of them are “shareware” which means you can try them before you buy them.

Draw cord

A cord or ribbon run through a hem or casing, pulled to tighten or close an opening.

Dri-Fast Advantage™

Advanced moisture management to keep you dry, cool and comfortable. It even blocks the sun’s harmful rays.


Moisture management to keep you dry, cool and comfortable.

Drop needle

Knitting technique that disengages a knitting needle so as to prevent knitting a stitch. This results in a vertical rib-like appearance. Typically this technique is done on interlock (double knit) constructions.

Drop Shadow

Graphic device in which type is reproduced with an offset second image on one edge, giving a shadow effect that visually lifts the primary type and makes the image appear three-dimensional.

Drop Tail

A design feature found in upscale products where the back of the garment is longer than the front for the purpose of keeping the shirt tucked in. Sometimes referred to as an “elongated” back or extended tail.

Drop tail

An extension of the back panel of a shirt at the point of the separation of side vents. The effect is designed for functionality rather than form as it helps the shirt stay tucked in during movement.


A knit fabric characterized by vertical lines within the cloth. Manufactured by dropping a needle from the knitting cylinder.


Individual packaging, address and delivery of a product to a specific address, usually the recipient’s or client’s.


Digital Subscriber Line DSL is a technology that uses existing copper wiring found in almost every home and office to provide a fast connection to the Internet. Special hardware is attached to both ends of the line to allow data to transmit over the wires at a far greater speed than the standard phone wiring. It also provides a constant connection to the Internet 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, meaning there is no need to dial-in to your ISP each time you want to get online. A DSL line is most convenient in that you only need one line to carry both voice and data signals (meaning you don’t have to get a second phone line). DSL is similar to ISDN in that they both operate over existing copper telephone lines (POTS) and both require short runs to a central telephone office. (DSL is not yet available in many areas because of the distance from a central office or because the local telephone companies have not yet introduced this product.) DSL provides much higher speeds, however, because connection speeds vary, many people prefer the fixed speed of an ISDN (or a T1 for that matter). Connection speeds for DSL typically range from 1.544 Mbps to 512 Kbps downstream and around 128 Kbps upstream. xDSL refers to the family of digital subscriber line technologies, such as ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line), SDSL (Symmetrical Digital Subscriber Line), HDSL (High bit-rate Digital Subscriber Line), and RADSL (Rate Adaptive Digital Subscriber Line).


This plain-woven cotton fabric is typically heavyweight and is very strong and durable. It is often used for apparel that gets heavy use, such as work clothes and kids wear.


Simulation of a finished printed piece.

DuPont™ Teflon®

Trademark of DuPont. Stain resistant, water repellent finish applied to textiles. This treatment gives the fabric a protective coating without affecting any of the fabrics inherent properties.


Pearlized type button trademarked by Broder Bros., Co.



Dyed garment

Fabric that has been dyed after the shirt is assembled. Many different types of dyeing process can be used. i.e., pigment, direct, or reactive.

Dyed transfer

In photography, a process of producing color prints by tanning photographic emulsions and using them to transfer dye solutions to film or paper coated with gelatin.

Dyed-To-Match (DTM)

A term which characterizes buttons or trims that are the same color as the garment onto which they are sewn.


Method used to impart color to textiles. It involves the use of complex organic or chemical dyestuffs, which under proper conditions will actually combine with the textile fibers. There are many ways fabric can be dyed.


Indigo – Indigo dye is a substance taken from the indigo plant. There are many chemical imitation indigo dyes. Indigo dye color can only be achieved through a process of dyeing, where yarn is dipped into a dye bath and is then allowed to oxidize. The number of dips determines the depth of the indigo color, the more dips, the darker the color.


Piece – Fabrics are dyed solid colors after they have been woven or knit, but before they are sewn into a garment. Piece dyed goods can be used in making solid and color-blocked shirts.


Pigment – Textile color by the use of pigments differs from reactive dyes in that pigments do not combine with the fiber molecules as reactive dyes do. Pigments hold onto the textile materials with resin binders in much the same way that paint holds to a wall. It is intentionally expected that pigments will wash out through repeated washings.


Reactive/Wet prints – Reactive print dyeing process produces rich colors that are very colorfast because the dye absorbs or is bonded into the fibers. Reactive dyes produce bright colors on cottons and can dye acrylics, nylon, silk, wool, and blends of these fibers. These prints produce a nice, soft hand. This process is used on print shirts.


Top – Yarns are dyed before the yarn is spun when the yarns are in the top state, which gives an uneven dyed or heather appearance to the yarn. Top dyeing results in a natural look of the two colors blended. This process is used on heathered and natural color shirts.


Vat – Vat dye is obtained through oxidation. It is usually very bright and will hold up better when bleached than most other dyes. The process is very colorfast in all respects. This is an expensive procedure and is used mainly on high-end products.


Yarn – Yarn is dyed prior to the weaving or knitting of the goods and after the spinning of the yarn. Done in either total immersion or partial immersion of the yarn. This process is especially used in patterns such as jacquards and stripes that require knitting.


digitized typesetting

Creation of typographic characters and symbols by the arrangement of black-and-white spots called pixels or pels.



Ability to perform business over the Internet.


Ability to send information over the Internet.

Earthtones (Color Families)

Neutral shades reminiscent of colors found in nature, such as deserts, mountains, and valleys. Many of these shades serve as a base of apparel, particularly in clothing (suits, etc.). Colors include tan brown, sage, and charcoal.

Eco Spun

Fleece outerwear fabric made from at least 50% materials reclaimed from recycled plastic pop bottles.

Egyptian Cotton

Cultivated in Egypt’s Nile River Valley, this cotton is regarded as one of the finest cotton in the world. The particular growing season gives the cotton the longest and strongest fibers, making it ideal for weaving into smooth, strong yarn. Commonly used in high-end towels and linens.

Electronic (Engraving)

Any artwork from child’s signature to newspaper is reproduced as long as it can be wrapped around a cylindrical drum.

Electronic marketing

System using magnetic card at a checkout to give retail customers incentive credits, accumulate purchase information, issue discount coupons, authorize check-cashing, and other functions.


Medallion, logo or everyday object is buried deep in what appears to be solid glass but instead is acrylic


Embroidered design with a finished edge, commonly an insignia of identification, usually worn on outer clothing. Also known as a crest or patch.

Emboss and color-fill

Combining hot-stamping with embossing (opposite of debossing). A raised image is stamped with foil. True embossing cannot be performed on vinyl.


Raising of an image on a product, accomplished by pressing the material between concave and convex dies.


Design stitched onto fabric through the use of highspeed, computer-controlled sewing machines.


Art of creating and producing ornamental needlework consisting of designs worked on fabric with high luster threads either by hand or machine.

Employee award

Incentive to a nonsales employee for safety, quality control, suggestions, attendance, or productivity achievement.

Employee incentive

Program designed to motivate a company’s own employees with premiums given for specific actions taken or goals met. Also called recognition program.

End on end

Knit process using two yarns of alternating colors to create a microstripe pattern. In a woven, a pattern in which the warp alternates between two colors.


A weave pattern in which the warp yarn (the yard running lengthwise) alternates between colors.


Purchaser of a promotional product. The recipient is one it’s given to .

Engineered stripes

Usually yarn dyed knitwear made on modern knitting equipment with wide bands of multiple colors. The effect is not possible to achieve on less sophisticated repeat machines. This is a jersey or pique fabric with different, more complicated needle selections.


Cutting an image into metal, wood or glass by one of three methods; computerized engraving, hand tracing or hand engraving.

Envelope stuffer

Direct-mail ad circular or product included with some other mailed message.

Enzyme wash

Washing process that uses a cellulose-based solution to obtain garments that appear to have been stonewashed or acid washed.


Washing process that uses a cellulose-based solution to obtain garments that appear to have been stonewashed or acid washed. The solution physically degrades the surface of the cotton fiber. The appearance and hand of the garment are identical to stonewashed and acid washed garments. However, the fabric surface is not damaged to the extent of a stonewashed or acid washed garment.

EPS (or) .eps

Encapsulated Postscript A type of graphics file written in the PostScript language.


Design elements incorporated into a garment to improve the design by enhancing the wearer’s comfort, performance or health.


Imprinting method in which the product to be imaged is coated with a protective coating that resists acid. The image is then exposed, leaving bare metal and protected metal. The acid attacks only the exposed metal, leaving the image etched onto the surface.

Etched Tone Buttons

A horn tone button with an etched design pattern.

Extended Tail

A longer back than front for the purpose of keeping the shirt tucked in. Also referred to as Drop Tail.


Small holes or perforations made in a series to allow for breathability. Finished with either stitching or brass grommets.


Fabric Memory

A fabrics ability to return to its original dimensions after being stretched out of shape.


The most attractive side of a fabric; the side of the fabric that makes up the outside of a garment; most suitable for decoration.

Face Yarn

The exterior yarn of a fabric.


Material hooped or placed on top of fabrics that have a definable nap or surface texture, such as corduroy and terry cloth, prior to embroidery. The facing compacts the wale or nap and holds the stitches above it.

Factory pack

Premium offered within or on a package or as a container premium.

Fair Isle

Traditional knitted patterns or horizontal bands of geometric and floral designs against a contrasting background. Named after Fair Isle, the most southern of the Shetland Isles off the northern coast of Scotland, where authentic Fair Isle sweaters are made by hand from Shetland wool.


Nonwoven fabric made by layering thin sheets of carded wool fibers, then applying heat, moisture, and pressure to shrink and compress the fibers into a thick matted cloth that will not ravel or fray.



Fire Wall

Software application that restricts unauthorized people on the Internet from accessing an internal Web site.

Fired decals

Decal that actually becomes part of the piece to which it is applied.

Fisherman knits

Distinctive knitted patterns that originated on the Aran Islands off the coast of Ireland. Each family had its own highly recognized patterns, which were used to identify the remains of fishermen lost at sea.


Light to heavyweight plain or twill weave fabric with a napped surface. Can be made of cotton or wool. The brushing process creates insulating air cells that provide more warmth than plain cotton.

Flat Collar/Cuffs

A single ply fabric with a finished edge that is used for collars and cuffs on sport shirts and short sleeve garments. Also known as welt.


Flax is the plant, linen yarns are made from flax. Linen is stronger that cotton. It is one of the oldest textile fibers known.


A fabric identified by a soft napped interior and a smooth exterior. Commonly used in sweats.


Originally referring only to sheep’s wool, this type of fabric is now made of other natural synthetic fibers and can be woven or knitted. It is typically thick with a napped or pile inner surface and is often used for jackets, blankets and sweatshirts.


Luxurious fabric with a thick deep nap that provides warmth without weight. May be twill or plain weave. The term correctly applies only to wool fabrics, although there are so-called fleeces of other fabrics.


A Yupoong patented technology that weaves spandex into the sweatband and throughout the entire crown to allow easy stretching while retaining the original shape.


Imprinting method for paper in which a flexible rubber plate is wrapped around a cylinder. As the paper moves under the plate, it is pressed against it by another roller, and the ink is transferred on the paper.

Foil stamping

Process in which a metal plate or die is heated and then pressed against foil into a surface, causing the pigments of the foil to transfer to the surface. Also called hot-stamping.

Forward shoulders

The positioning of shoulder seams so they don’t lie directly across the top of the shoulders. Rather, the seams lie slightly forward. This prevents the neck from falling backwards, making an uncomfortable fit for the wearer.

Four-color process

Printing process that creates color productions by overprinting screens that individually print reds, yellows, blues and blacks of variable specified intensities.


Number of separate HTML documents that interact with each other on a single Web page.

Franchise line

Arrangement where a supplier specifies restrictions, such as minimum, volume, number of distributors in a geographical area and credit, in order for a distributor to carry its line.


Word whose use is not as severely restricted as it once was – but it’s still wise to be sure it really is free if the advertising says it is. Conditions on which the free offer is made should be clearly stated.

Free mail-in

Consumer offer of premium by mail for proof-ofpurchase – plus, usually a sum for postage and handling.

French Terry or Fleece

Pile knit fabric with uncut loops on one side. IT is called fleece if the loops are sheared and brushed. A pile, woven fabric with uncut loops is called terrycloth.

Frequency of exposure

Number of times an individual or household is exposed to a particular ad message in a specific period of time.

Frequency program

Promotion that provides those participating with points, redeemable for merchandise or services.

Frequent-buyer incentive

Continuing offers designed to build customer loyalty; akin to coupon plan or trading stamps.


File Transfer Protocol. A protocol agreed upon to transfer files over the Internet from one location to another.

Fulfillment house

Service firm that processes premium and specialty orders, often packaging and mailing the items. Other services offered include warehousing, accounting, and coupon-redemption management.

Full Cut

Refers to a garment’s fit as being generous and roomy.


Knitting process whereby the pattern shape of an individual garment piece is formed on the knitting machine as opposed to being cut from a piece of cloth. Full-fashioned garments are typically expensive sweater knits where the sleeve is knit together with the body of the machine. Full fashioned collar trims allow for one to control the shape/angle of the collar points.


Stands for “functional capability” Use is deprecated in contexts where just “function” means the right thing. (Marketing people seem to think the two are synonymous and that “functionality” has a more impressive sound to it.)

Fused Lining

A lining that is fused to the two outer plies with solvent, heat and pressure. It’s used to stabilize or stiffen parts of a garment, such as a pocket or collar.



Popular fabric with a smooth face and a dull sheen, made with a tight twill weave and worsted yarns. Fabric has a distinct, closely set diagonal rib on the face and a plain back. Made in various weights for men’s and women’s outerwear, sportswear, suits, dresses, and uniforms.


Includes a variety of chance promotions such as contests, sweepstakes, etc.

Garment Dyed

A dyeing process that occurs after the garment is assembled.

Garment Wash

Process of industrially washing garments after they have been manufactured to remove sizing; it also softens and pre-shrinks.

Garment wash

Process of industrially washing garments after they have been manufactured that softens and pre-shrinks.

Garment Washed

A wash process where softeners are added to finished garments to help the cotton fibers relax. The result is a fabric with a thicker appearance, reduced shrinkage and a softer hand.


When a garment is dyed after it has been manufacturer. This produces variation in color throughout an individual garment and form garment to garment, even if they’re part of the same dye-lot. It’s usually considered a more casual look.


This means a cap has been sewn and made and then washed in a washing facility. This creates the popular faded, worn look around the edges and looks more natural than the material pre-washed caps.


Measure of the fineness or coarseness of knit fabrics. Refers to the number of loops (knit stitches) in an inch. The higher the gauge, the finer the fabric.

GIF (or) .gif

Graphics Interchange Format Developed by Compuserve using compression technology from Unisys. On the World Wide Web pictures and graphics you see on Web pages are usually in GIF format because the files are small and download quickly. Another type of graphics format used commonly are JPEG these files download even faster and contain a better resolution but cannot be interlaced so many Web page authors tend to opt for using GIF’s instead to get that “melting” onto the screen effect that happens with interlaced images.

GIF89a, GIF animation, or multi block GIF

A type of GIF format which allows a series of images to be displayed one after another or on top of each other.


A low-cost item handed out fairly freely-akin to an advertising specialty or a traffic builder. Now also sometimes used as a term for any direct premium.


An eyelet of firm material to strengthen or protect an opening.

Grommet-sewn slot

Caps that have a back strap made of cotton or leather and buckle, and have a slot where the end of the strap tucks into the hat. This slot can either be trimmed with stitching creating a sewn slot, or with a metal creating a grommet.


A firm, closely woven fabric with narrow horizontal stripes. Commonly used for ribbons, neckties and trimmings.

Group travel

Incentive program in which qualifiers (and spouses usually) travel together to a single destination; business meetings are often included.

Gun club check

Double-check design that uses three colors to form a larger check over a smaller check.


Triangular inserts in sleeve seams to widen and strengthen.


Inlaid piece of fabric, usually triangular, between arm and body of shirt. Allows ease of movement.


Half-moon label mount

Fabric sewn inside the back of the garment just below the neck to add hanger appeal and to allow for placement of the label without visible stitches.


Engraving made by photographing through a glass screen that breaks the subject into small dots of varying intensities of gray, ranging from white to black.


Quality or characteristic of fabrics perceived by sense of touch—softness, firmness or drape.


How a fabric or embellishment feels. The term is usually modified by an adjective such as soft, rough, firm, medium, etc.


Quality of characteristic of fabrics perceived by sense of touch, e.g., softness, firmness, drapability, fineness of the feel.

Hand or manual (Engraving)

Used for detailed work on materials ranging from metal to eggshells. Not practical for volume orders.


Computer and peripherals as distinguished from software, which is a program for operating hardware.

Heat-transfer printing (sublimation)

Process in which a design is transferred to a synthetic fabric by heat and pressure. The heat causes the inks to turn into a gas so that they penetrate the fabric and combine with it to form a permanent imprint. Also called a plastocal transfer.

Heat-transfer printing (direct transfer process)

Imprinting method in which an image is screened onto a transfer substrate, which is then laid directly on the material to be imprinted. The image is transferred from the substrate to the material through heat and pressure.

Heather yarn

Tow (or more) toned yarn which is knit or woven to create a soft tonal effect.


Fabric heavier than 10 ounces per linear yard, equal to 1.60 yield. Standard weight in the industry is 8 ounces (2.0 yield) or lighter.


Shirt featuring a banded neck and button placket; may be ribbed.


No separate piece of fabric is attached, the fabric of the shirt itself is folded back and tacked at the bottom.


Knit shirt with buttoned placket at the neckline with no collar. Copied from a shirt originally worn by a rower in Henley, England.


A chevron or zigzag decorative pattern knit into fabric. Commonly used in golf shirts and twill shirts.


Broken twill weave fabric created by changing the direction of twill from right to left and back again. This creates a chevron pattern. Herringbone fabrics are made in a variety of weights, patterns, and fiber types. Herringbone patterns can also be knitted as a jacquard.

High Cotton

Refers to fabrics woven with a relatively high thread count, resulting in a dense, tight fabric.


A term used for a cap or hat silhouette that is less fitted to the head with a high slope. Usually structured with buckram or other stiff fabric lining.


Combination of several layers of refractive material that causes the image to have a three-dimensional effect.

Home page

Entry point to a Web site. The first page that viewers see. Also the Web page that loads when a browser is first started up.


Rough, coarse, tweed-like fabric made with thick, uneven yarns and a plain weave. Once made by hand, now produced on power looms.

Horn-Style Buttons

Buttons that appear to be manufactured from horn.

Hostess/Host gift

Way of compensating a customer who hosts a party plan.

Hot stamping

Dry imprinting process in which a design or type is set on a relief die that is subsequently impressed by heat and pressure onto the printing surface.

Hot type

Type composed by machine and made from molten metal.

Hounds tooth

Another variation of the twill weave, this one produces a broken-check pattern when woven with two different yarn colors.


Popular wool pattern made with a variation of the twill weave to form jagged broken checks. It is not widely used to make many types of fabrics, especially suitings.


Language that defines styles for Web pages such as headings, paragraphs, lists, tables as well as characters such as type size and typestyle (boldface, italic, etc.).


Hyper text transfer protocol. A protocol agreed upon to access information on the Web.

Hyperlink – a.k.a. “link”

The text you find on a Web site which can be “clicked on” with a mouse which in turn will take you to another Web page or a different area of the same Web page. Hyperlinks are created or “coded” in HTML. They are also used to load multimedia files such as AVI movies and AU sound files.


Enables users to read and navigate text in a nonlinear way. Instead of reading in a linear structure, such as a book, readers can skip easily from one point to another.


Image advertising

Advertising to make an organization’s relevant publics have more positive attitudes toward it.


An image or graphic that has been coded to contain interactive areas. When it’s clicked on, it launches another Web page or program. There’s a subtle distinction between an imagemap and a clickable graphic. An imagemap usually has many different hyperlinked areas, known as links. For example, an imagemap of a country could be coded so that when a user clicks on a city or region, the browser is routed to a document or Web page about that place. A clickable graphic, on the other hand usually contains just one link.


Device that outputs type, line art, and photos in position.

Imprinted product

Merchandise featuring a company’s logo, slogan, or other corporate identification.

In lieu of interest

Premium offered by a financial institution instead of all or part of normal interest payments.


Premium offered inside a products being sold. Also called package enclosure.


Reward for performance. Merchandise or travel offered to consumers, salespeople, dealers, or employees as a tangible reward for purchase or performance.

Incentive catalog company

Company that puts together a catalog premium and incentive program for an end-buyer.

Incentive representative

Specialized manufacturer’s representative servicing premium users; a commission salesperson representing several different manufacturers.

Independent contractor

Salesperson operating his or her own business as an independent agent of a distributor.

Industrial advertising

Advertising directed at businesses or enterprises that produce goods/services that are ultimately sold to other businesses or commercial consumers.

Injection molding

Process in which molten metal or plastic is injected into the cavity of a carved die.

Ink jet

Printer that reproduces by projecting ink onto paper without the mechanical impact of plates.

Institutional advertising

Advertising on behalf of a corporation or institution rather than for a product


Design that is impressed into its base material

Interactive kiosks

Usually a kiosk of computers connected to the Internet located strategically in offices for easy access to the Internet.


A stiff material that is placed two pieces of fabric to add shape to certain areas of a garment. It’s often used in the collars and plackets of shirts made of woven fabric.

Interlaced GIF

Interlaced GIFs appear first with poor resolution and then improve in resolution until the entire image has arrived, as opposed to arriving linearly from the top row to the bottom row. This is great to get a quick idea of what the entire image will look like while waiting for the rest. This doesn’t do much for you if your Web browser doesn’t support progressive display as the image is downloaded, but non-progressive-display Web browsers will still display interlaced GIFs once they have arrived in their entirety. You can make transparent and interlaced GIFs through the Web without running any utility software on your own system through the Visioneering image manipulation page, which will access your image through the Web and produce an enhanced version for you to save.


Firm double knit fabric. Both sides of the fabric look the same (similar to the face of jersey). Used in short sleeve knit shirts.

Interlock Knit

A double knit fabric with a smooth finish on face and back of fabric. The process creates a luxurious fabric with increased strength, enhanced durability.

Interlock Knit

A fabric created when two single- faced knits (i.e., jersey knit) are knitted together, or interlocked, to form one piece of fabric. Both sides of the fabric look and feel the same. It has a very soft hand and good decorating surface for embroidery as well as screen- printing.

Internal server

A server that is accessible only to people within a defined network.


a.k.a. “the Net” Originally designed by the U.S. Defense Department so that a communication signal could withstand a nuclear war and serve military institutions worldwide, the Internet, was first known as the ARPAnet. A system of linked computer networks, international in scope, that facilitates data communication services such as remote login, file transfer, electronic mail, and newsgroups. The Internet is a way of connecting existing computer networks that greatly extends the reach of each participating system. When you see internet written with a lower case “i” it usually refers to a group of local area networks (LANs) that have been connected by means of a common communications protocol. Many internets exist besides the Internet, including many TCP/IP based networks that are not linked to the Internet. The Defense Data Network is a case in point.

Internet service provider

Charges startup and monthly fees to users and provides them with the initial host connection to the rest of the Internet usually via a dial-up connection.


An internal Web site harnessing the power of the Web to deliver information and perform transactions via a dial-up connection



Can be woven or knit fabrics. Woven fabrics are produced by using the Jacquard attachment on the loom. This attachment provides versatility in designs and permits individual control of each of the warp yarns. Fabrics of almost any types of woven jacquard fabrics. Knitting machines can also be fitted with a Jacquard- type mechanism. This device individually controls needles or small groups of needles, and allows very complex and highly patterned knits to be created.


Type of woven or knitted fabric, which is constructed on a special machine that uses needle selection which results in intricate, complex all-over designs. Single knit jacquards are commonly knit with two separate colored yarns that are knit together in a row. Double knit jacquards are knit with up to five separate colored yarns across a row. Double knits are generally much more intricate, more colorful and yet heavier (mostly used in long sleeve product). Woven jacquard fabrics include brocade, damask and tapestry.

Jacquard Knit

Often an intricate pattern knit directly into the fabric during the manufacturing process. Typically, two or more colors are used.


Developed by Sun Microsystems, Java is a programming language that is specifically designed for writing programs that can be safely downloaded to your computer through the Internet and immediately run without fear of viruses or other harm to your computer or files. Using small Java programs (called “Applets”), Web pages can include functions such as animations, calculators, and other fancy tricks. Java is a simple, robust, object-oriented, platformindependent multi-threaded, dynamic general-purpose programming environment. It is best for creating applets and applications for the Internet, intranets and any other complex, distributed network.

Java applets

Mini programs that run on a Web page or a Web site to perform complicated tasks.


Single knit construction which has rows of vertical loops (knit stitches) on the face and rows of horizontal half-loops (purl stitches) on the back. Jersey can be any fiber content and can be knit flat or circular. Often used in short sleeve knit shirts.

Jersey Knit

The consistent interloping of yarns to produce a fabric with a flat, smooth face and a more textured, but uniform back.

Jersey knit

A single-faced knitted fabric that is the primary fabric used for T-shirts. The knit stitch on the opposite side (inside) is called the purl stitch.

Jewel Tones (Color Families)

Are still deeper, saturated, more vibrant colors that include brights, such as emerald green, ruby red, and sapphire blue that cross seasons.


Although some variation exists, typically a traditional fashion collar sewn into a V- neck silhouette.

Johnny Collar

A type of neckline that forms a “Y” at the front of the neck. Commonly used in women’s sportswear.

JPG/JPEG (or) .jpg/.jpeg

Joint Photographic Experts Group is a standard compression format for high-resolution color images.



Premium offered via direct mail as an incentive for the consumer to try a new product/service or to complete a questionnaire.


To add or delete space between pairs of adjacent characters. Also known as letterspacing.

Keyline drawing

Outline drawing on finished art to indicate the exact shape, position and size for such elements as halftones, line sketches, etc.


Light brown cotton used for Indian army uniforms.


A thousand bytes. Actually, usually 1024 (2^10) bytes.


Fabrics constructed by interlocking a series of loops of one or more yarns by hand or by machine. Can be any fiber content. (See double knit, interlock, and jersey).



Fine soft wool from the first shearing of a lamb, usually when it is about seven months old.


Coated with clear plastic, or two separate sheets of paper joined together as a single sheet to provide a special thickness or varying colors from side to side.

Lap Shoulder

An infant’s shirt where the back panel or body parts overlap the front panel at the neckline where the set-in sleeves start, making it easier to slip on and off.

Laser (Engraving)

Imprinting method by which art or lettering is cut into a material by a laser beam that vaporizes the portion exposed through openings in a template.


Has subcategories, including genuine (top-grain or full grain leather from the outermost layer of hide); splits (underlayers split off from the top grain, usually having a surface treatment to simulate color and grain of genuine leather), and processed leather (one type of skin or hide made to resemble another type usually called “bonded leather” or “laminated leather”).


Product usually given by a salesperson that serves to act as a reminder of his or her visit, company, or product/service.

Lenticular printing

Process of creating multidimensional, animated or biview effects by photographing with an extremely fine screen and placing plastic made up of tiny lenses over the top.


Embroidery using letters or words. Lettering, commonly called “keyboard lettering,” may be created from circuit boards that allow variance of letter style, size, height, density, and other characteristics.

Letterpress printing

Printing method in which ink is carried on a raised surface to the page or object being printed.

Line art

Black-and-white illustration of reproduction quality.

Line conversion

Photograph reproduction as a line illustration, accomplished by shooting the photo without a screen and omitting the middle tones.

Line name

Name used by a supplier to identify its line of products, generally to protect the confidentiality of the distributor’s sources.

Liquid crystals

Technology used to produce temperature reactive products which change colors, going through a range of reddish browns, greens, and blues.


High-quality cotton yarn made by plying yarns spun from long, combed staple.

List broker

Person or firm specializing in selling or leasing lists names for direct mail use.


An automatic mailing list server developed by Eric Thomas for BITNET in 1986. When e-mail is addressed to a LISTSERV mailing list, it is automatically broadcast to everyone on the list. The result is similar to a newsgroup or forum, except that the messages are transmitted as e-mail and are therefore available only to individuals on the list. LISTSERV is currently a commercial product marketed by L Soft International. Although LISTSERV refers to a specific mailing list server, the term is sometimes used incorrectly to refer to any mailing list server. Another popular mailing list server is Majordomo, which is freeware.

Litho laminating

Process of mounting a printed lithography sheet to single-faced corrugated to produce a display-quality piece that is structural corrugated.


Obsolete term (also “dealer loader) for a dealer premium given with specified product purchase. In disfavor because of obvious negative connotation. “Dealer premium” or dealer incentive” has replaced it.

Local Area Network (LAN)

Linking of workstations, storage units (file servers) and print-out devices (print servers).

Locker loop

Looped piece of fabric in the neck of a garment for the convenience of hanging the garment of a hook. Can also be located at the center of the back yoke on the inside or outside of the garment.

Locker loop

An additional piece of fabric sewn into the inside collar or on the outside rear of a shirt that allows the garment to be easily hung from a locker hook.

Locker Loop

A looped piece of fabric in the neck of a garment for the convenience of hanging the garment on a hook. Can also be located at the center of the back yoke on the inside or outside of a garment.

Locker Patch

A semi-oval panel sewn into the inside back portion of a garment, just under the collar seam to reinforce the garment and minimize stretching when hung on a hook. The patch also allows for the garment tag or label to be sewn below the neckline to help prevent irritation.

Locker patch

Semi-oval panel sewn into the back of the garment just under the collar seam to reinforce the garment to minimize stretching when hung on a hook.


An artistic interpretation of a company’s sign or symbol. These figures can be copyrighted or trademarked. Permission is needed for duplication.

Logo or Logotype

Style of lettering or design of a company used as a trademark to identify itself.


Plan that awards a prize on the basis of chance and requires consideration to enter. It becomes a legal sweepstakes or game when consideration is removed, or a contest when chance is eliminated.


A term used for a cap or hat silhouette that is more closely fitted to the head. Can be either structured or unstructured.


Dupont’s trademark from spandex fiber. Spandex has excellent stretch and is always blended with other fibers, imparting stretch to the resulting fabric.

Lycra® Fiber

INVISTA’s trademark for a synthetic fabric material with the elastic properties of spandex.


manufactured fiber made of regenerated cellulose (plant fiber). Lyocell has a similar hand and drape to rayon, but is stronger and more durable. It has a subtle luster and takes color well, and has good wrinkle-resistant qualities. It also absorbs moisture well.


A fabric made from wood pulp. Tencel is a well- known brand name of this fabric.



Mac Paint


Hand loomed Indian cotton fabric in plaids, checks, or stripes all colorfully intermingled. Because the yarn is dyed with natural vegetable dyes, colors run together (bleeding), producing a muted effect. The weave itself has many slubs and imperfections.


Premium consumers can order through the mail, usually with proof-of-purchase, on a free or selfliquidating basis.

Mainframe system

A high-end computer system capable of performing billions of transactions per second.


Rerun of an advertisement designed to compensate for a mistake made.

Maret profile

Description in demographic or psychographic terms of those people who use a particular product and thus constitute its market

Market segmentation

Breakdown of a market into subsections, each with distinct demographic, psychographic and/or consumption characteristics.

Market share

Proportion of sales in a product market that is held by an individual brand of that product.

Marketing mix

Blending of a variety of marketing elements (price, packaging, distribution, promotion, public relations, etc.) into a marketing program.

MAS (Master Advertising Specialist)

Designated industry title signifying that the holder has attained 17 certified education units by attending 170 hours of educational offerings.

Matte finish

Dull paper finish without gloss or luster.


Final make-up of printed advertisement before transformation onto a printing plate.

Media planning

Process that develops media goals and strategies and specific plans to implement these goals and strategies.

Media strategy

Strategy concerned with how ad messages will be delivered to consumers. It involves: identifying the characteristics of the target audience, who should receive ad messages and defining the characteristics of the media that will be used for the delivery of the ad messages.

Medium (plural, media)

Established vehicle for transmitting promotional/ad messages to the target audience.


A million bytes. A thousand kilobytes


A mix of different colors of yarns knit together to create a heathered effect.


Dense, thick coating fabric with a smooth face, made with a tight plain or twill weave and two sets of softly twisted filling yarns. It is heavily fulled napped to hide all traces of the weave. Named for Melton Mowbray, a town in Leicestershire, England, where the original cloth was used to make hunting outfits.


Improves the quality of cotton fibers and fabrics. Provides added strength, luster, and ability to accept and hold dyes. Mercerization is a chemical process that swells the yarn, resulting in a smoother and more dye receptive yarn/fabric.


To process yarn or fabric to give it luster and added strength.


A process that eliminates all of the small “hairs” of yarn, which adds to its luster. This yarn is then additionally run through a caustic solution, which further smoothes and adds gloss to the yarn surface by burning off additional fabric hairs.

Merchandise proof

Product imprinted with the specified design/copy of an issued purchase order, used to clarify the appearance of the product and the imprint prior to manufacturing.


Very fine wool from the Merino breed of sheep, used to make the finest of woolen and worsted cloths.


A type of fabric characterized by its net-like open appearance and the spaces between the yarns. Mesh is available in a variety of constructions, including woven’s, knits, laces or crocheted fabrics.

Metal casting

Production method in which jewelry or other material is shaped by covering a mold with molten metal.

Micro fleece

Crafted from ultra-fine yarn, this lightweight, high-density fleece is brushed less than a regular fleece garment for a tight look, excellent softness and warmth. 100% polyester micro fleece.

Micro stripe

An ultra-fine stripe knit into the fabric

Micro suede

A synthetic fabric napped on one side to resemble suede leather. Short, close nap gives a soft, smooth hand.


Tightly woven fabric from a very fine polyester thread, usually with a sueded finish for a soft feel. Generally lightweight, resilient, resist wrinkling and are inherently water repellent and wind resistant due to its construction.


Super fine polyester filament yarn recently developed. Microfiber has superior hand feel and draping characteristics to ordinary polyester yarn. Because the fabric is high-count polyester or nylon yarns, it is durable, water-repellent, and windproof, and retains its color, resilience, and soft touch.


A woven fabric that is made of synthetic yarn that is thinner than a standard strand of silk yarn.


A term used for a cap or hat silhouette that is slightly fitted to the head. Can be either structured or unstructured.

Midtones (Color Families)

Transitional colors such as dusty blue, rose pink, sunflower yellow, and salmon that cross seasons and climates, and are less intense than jewel tones.


Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions A protocol for internet email that enables the transmission of nontextual data such as graphics, audio, video and other binary types of files. An e-mail program such as Eudora is said to be “MIME Compliant” if it can both send and receive files using the MIME standard. When non-text files are sent using the MIME standard they are converted (encoded) into text – although the resulting text is not really readable. Besides e-mail software, the MIME standard is also universally used by Web Servers to identify the files they are sending to Web Clients, in this way new file formats can be accommodated simply by updating the browsers’ list of pairs of MIME-Types and appropriate software for handling each type.

Mock Turtleneck

a shortened version of the turtleneck where the neck of the garment does not fold over.


Like a turtleneck, but this collar sits lower on the neck, does not fit as close and is not designed to be turned down.


MOdulator/DEModulator. Device that converts computer data into high-frequency signals or vice versa, for transmission over phone lines.


Screen pattern caused by the clash of dot patterns when two or more screens are used.


moisture management fabrics which transport moisture away from the body, keeping the wearer cool and dry

Molded materials

Made by pouring molten plastic (usually polypropylene) into a cavity to make a hard, seamless shell


Embroidered design composed of one or more letters, usually the initials in a name.


Stimulation of a salesperson’s, dealer’s, or employee’s innate desires and personal objectives by a program of recognition or achievement through merchandise or travel incentive techniques.

Mounting and finishing

Manufacturing of a display, applying litho, die-cutting and assembly.


Motion Pictures Experts Group is a standard compression format for video and sound. It can be used to display and hear online movies.

Multi-line rep

Independent contractor representing several different supplier lines.


Screenprinting fabric made of two or more strands of material twisted around one another.


Nail head

General term for a variety of small woven patterns, including bird’s eye, dots and small houndstooth. It is usually associated with clear finished worsted suitings, such as sharkskin.


A fuzzy, fur-like feel created when fiber ends extend from the basic fabric structure to the fabric surface. The fabric can be napped on one or both sides.


Raised surface or pile of a fabric, such as fleece, formed by distressing it.

Nav bar

Short for “navigation bar” The set of directional tools you are presented with on a Web site. The options listed and hyperlinked on a

web page

usually determined by the names of the sections of a Web site. Inherent to the name “Web” almost all web pages are “linked” in numerous places to numerous other pages. Nav bars are supposed to help in guiding a user through the tangled mess.


How viewers on a Web site find their way through the content of that site.


Premium separate from, but adjacent to, the merchandise being promoted.


A term characterizing fabric that has been chemically treated to resist wrinkles, eliminating the need for ironing.

Nonrepro blue

Color that does not reproduce in final production, used to mark instructions and corrections on cameraready art.

NPSE (National Premium Sales Executives)

Former name of Association of Incentive Marketing.

NuBlend™ Fleece

A combined knitting and spinning process, with fabric made of 50% cotton and 50% polyester, developed by Jerzees® with an anti-pilling surface.


A synthetic fiber with high strength and abrasion resistance, low absorbency and good


High strength, high abrasion resistance, low absorbency, good elasticity. Texture varies from smooth and crisp to soft and bulky.


Offset lithography

Printing process in which the image is transferred to a rubber blanket, which in turn applies it to the surface to be printed.

Offset printing

Printing process in which a positive image is transferred to a rubber blanket in reverse, which in turn applies it to the surface to be printed, right reading


Design that has graduations in color, usually it is shades of one family of color or can change colors, such as from green to blue.


Direct premium attached to the outside of the product’s container.

One-Ply Yarn

One strand of thread is used to form the yarn that is woven into terry loops.


Heaviness of ink coverage.

Open line

Product line a supplier will sell to all distributors. Also known as a general line.

Open-End Yarn

A yarn produced by using a combing roll + rotor.


A tightly woven, horizontal raised rib textured knit.

Ounces Per Square Yard

A measurement of fabric weight, a weight that customers usually ask for when making a comparison to competitive brands.


A process in which yarn-dyed fabrics or piece-dyed garments are put through an additional dye color to create unique colors.

Overlay proof

Off-press color proof produced with four dyed or pigmented overlay films.


Specialties produced in excess of the number originally ordered.


When garment is intentionally cut larger than the standard size.


A fine, lightweight woven cotton or cotton blend fabric with a 2×1 basket weave variation. Typically used for dress shirts.


Soft, somewhat porous and rather stout cotton shirting weave gives a silk like finish, also made from spun rayon, acetate, and other man-made fibers. Oxford also means a woolen or worsted fabric with a grayish cast.


A lightweight woven fabric that is usually made of cotton. It is most commonly used for shirts.



A feature that allows for the garment to be folded into a separate or attached pocket.

Pad printing

Method of imprinting in which a recessed surface is covered with ink. When the plate is wiped clean, ink remains in the recessed area. A silicone pad then presses against the plate, pulls the ink out of the recesses and is pressed directly against the product.

Page description language

Method for communicating page, font, and graphic information from the workstation to the print-out device.


Process of performing page makeup automatically.


Abstract scroll pattern that originated in Paisley, Scotland

Panel/ piece program

When a manufacturer sends put unfinished pieces of a garment or other item to be embroidered before it is sewn into the finished product.


Five and six-panel caps. Six panels sewn together from the crown of the cap creating a seam down the front of the cap. Good for embroidery, but not a good choice for printing. A five-panel cap has five panels sewn together to form the crown of the cap. Since there is not seam down the front of the cap, five panels are an ideal choice for printing and embroidery.

Pantograph (Engraving)

Master letters or designs are traced with a stylus that is connected to and followed by a cutting tool that pushes the lettering or image into metal. Used in many jewelry shops to engrave silver-plated bowls and cups.

Pantone Matching System (PMS)

Color scale used to precisely match colors for printing. Each hue has a coded number indicating instructions for mixing inks to achieve that hue.

Paper proof

Impression of type or artwork on paper so the correctness and quality of the material to be printed can be checked. The least expensive is a regular black and white faxed paper proof. The most expensive is an actual physical preproduction sample of the product itself.

Part-cash redemption

Option, often included with coupon programs, allowing the customer to get a premium more quickly by sending fewer coupons plus a specified cash amount.


Fabric woven from the downy fibers from goats of the mountainous state of Jammu + Kashmir. Also known as Cashmere.


Act of producing mechanical art.

Pastels (Color Families)

Soft unwashed colors such as sky blue, seafoam green, coral, baby pink, and butter yellow that are used predominantly in spring and summer deliveries and in warmer climates.

Patch Pocket

A pocket attached to the outside of a garment.


Portable Bitmap


Photo CD




ZSoft Paintbrush

PDF (or) .pdf


Peach finish

Soft hand usually obtained by brushing the fabric lightly. It can also be achieved with chemical or laundry abrasion.


A soft hand usually obtained by sanding the fabric lightly. Can be achieved with chemical or laundry abrasion.

Pearlized Buttons

Buttons that have a pearl-colored hue.

Pencil rub

Low-cost way of producing a “sample” of an embroidery design. Consists literally of a piece of tracing paper placed over a sew-out and rubbed lightly with a pencil to produce an impression for the embroidery

Per inquiry

Means of media payment used in direct-response programs.

Perceived value

What someone believes promotional merchandise is worth

Permanent press

Improves the wrinkle recovery and shape retention qualities of fabrics.


To imprint the recipient’s name on a particular product.

Peruvian Pima Cotton

Peruvian Pima Cotton is often referred to as the “cashmere of cotton” because it is the softest, smoothest, “silkiest” fabric you can wear. Shrinkage standard for Peruvian Pima fabrics is a maximum of 5 x 5 if the garment is washed following directions on the label.


Prepared for Dye. Indicates that the garment has been specifically prepared for the garment-dyeing process.


Products that are specially manufactured for dyeing; 100% cotton thread, oversized cut to allow for shrinkage; no optical brighteners for even dye coverage.

PFD (Prepared For Dyeing)

Refers to a garment or other item that is specifically made to be dyed after finishing.


Transparent image or ghost superimposed over a subject.


Printing process using an acid solution to etch a photograph onto a metal surface.

Photographic imaging (Engraving)

1. Photometal processes actually develop metal by using photosensitive, anodized aluminum in either metal stock or metal sheet stock. 2. Chemical etching uses negative or camera-ready artwork, exposes it and coats the metal using acid or other more toxic chemicals to eat away impressions on the metal not covered by film.

Photomechanical transfer IPMT

Diffusion-transfer process used to resize or copy images.


Black-and-white reproduction of original art, generally not acceptable as “camera-ready” art.

Piece-a-week offer

Self-liquidating or profit-making retail offer of related premiums, once a week for 12 to 15 weeks, with specified purchases.


A dyeing process that occurs when the fabric is in yardage form after it has been knitted or woven, but before the garment is assembled.


Dyeing that occurs after a fabric is made (knitted or woven), but before it is assembled into a garment.

Pigment dyed

Caps are colored with a particular pigment that reacts with the washing to create a faded look.


A type of dye process used to create a distressed or washed look that results in soft, muted tones and a soft hand.


A tangled ball of fibers that appears on the surface of a fabric as a result of wear or continued friction or rubbing on the surface of the fabric. See Anti-Pill Finish.

Pima Cotton

A term applied to extra-long staple cotton grown in the U.S., Peru, Israel and Australia. It can only be grown in select areas where the cotton is fully irrigated and benefits from a longer growing season for a softer, stronger cotton than standard cotton.


Very small check pattern that is popular for suits, sportswear and outerwear.

Pinpoint Oxford

Two fine yarns that are wrapped together for a fine and luxurious hand.


Single knit construction also known as honeycomb or mesh. An open knit surface with a coarser hand than jersey or interlock.

Pique Knit

A knitting method that creates a fine textured surface that appears similar to a waffle weave. Commonly used for polo shirts.

Pique knit

This type of knit fabric is popularly used in its medium to heavyweight form for placket shirts. It can be easily recognized by its honeycomb or waffle- like surface appearance.


The part of a shirt or jacket where the garment fastens or buttons together.


(Slits in apparel forming a closure). A small boxed area at the bottom of where the buttons are.

Plain weave

Simplest, most common of three basic weaves (over one/under one interlacement). Provides a smooth surface for printing. The other basic weaves are satin and twill. (See Broadcloth, Chambray, and Poplin).


Rubber or metal image carrier that transfers ink to the printing surface.


Two or more yarns that have been twisted together.




Portable Network Graphics

Point-based system

Program in which recipients earn premiums based on an acquired number of points.

Point-of-purchase (POP) advertising

Advertising materials such as displays and cards that are placed in retail stores to draw attention to a product.

Polar Fleece

Knitted using 100% fine denier polyester yarns. The pile is napped on the front and back to promote a very soft hand with exceptional loft. This is a fine denier knit that also allows the fabric to dry quickly.


A warm polyester lining found in the body or sleeves of outerwear garments. It has more loft than a regular nylon lining.


A strong, durable synthetic fabric with high strength and excellent resiliency. Low moisture absorbency allows the fabric to dry quickly.


Versatile in weights and textures for weaves and knits. Resists wrinkling. Excellent shape retention.


A type of microfiber that is a blend of polyester and rayon fibers and features similar characteristics to cotton and silk with excellent luster, a soft finish, and very little shrinkage.


A hard fabric made from a plastic polymer of propylene.

Polyurethane Coating (PU Coating)

A finish commonly used in winter jackets, rainwear and wind wear to offer high performance water resistance, while maintaining the garment’s breathability.


A medium-to-heavyweight unbalanced plain weave. It is a spun yarn fabric that is usually piece dyed. Made by weaving one weft (vertical) yarn over and under each warp (horizontal) yarn, alternating each row. The filling is cylindrical. Two or three times as many warp as weft per inch.


Medium to heavyweight unbalanced plain weave. It is a spun yarn fabric that is usually piece dyed. Usually poplin is constructed with fine yarn, densely woven, resulting in a crisp, dressy appearance

Position proof

Color proofs for checking position, layout and/or color breakout of image elements.


Image reproduction with the same density values as the original.


Resin treated fabric is cut and sewn. The finished garment is then cured in a high temperature curing oven.

PPT (or) .ppt

MS PowerPoint


Product, imprinted or not, that is given for performing some task or duty, e.g., a gift with a purchase.

Premium rep

Incentive representative

Premium show

Exhibition featuring displays of incentive suppliers.


Pre-shrinking is not about pre-washing the fabric. It is a process where the bolted, uncut fabric is run through rollers containing tiny nubs that press the fabric over the nubs, creating grooves which condense it. This puckered shrinking effect then allows for real shrinking to occur when washed, without it being detected. Therefore, the fabric – not the shirt – is pre-shrunk before it is even cut and sewn.

Press Proof

Proof of a color subject made on printing press in advance of the production run.

Princess Seams

Shaped seams which can be found on the front or back of a garment. They are usually used specifically in women’s fashion since princess seams are designed to make a garment fit smoothly and snugly.


Reward given to the winner in a contest, sweepstakes, or lottery; also sometimes refers to a sales incentive award.

Pro forma invoice

Invoice issued as a matter of record and sent to the distributor prior to the shipment of products to confirm the specifications.


Height of a cap’s crown. Low-profile is approximately 3.5″. Regular profile is approximately 3.75″. Pro-style is somewhere in-between the two.

Progressive proofs

Color proofs that show the reproduction of each color plate separately and in combination with each other. Also called color keys

Progressive proofs or ‘progs ‘

Proofs made from separate plates in color work showing sequence of printing and result after each color has been applied.

Promotional buyer

Advertiser or other purchaser of promotional products from distributors. Also know as end-user.

Promotional product

Useful or interesting article of merchandise usually carrying an imprinted advertising or promotional message.


Impression of type or artwork on paper to allow the correctness and quality of the material to be checked


Box-top, label, trademark, coupon, UPC symbol or other token from a product, which qualifies a consumer to receive a premium.


Design concept expressing an element’s relationship of length to width

Protected domains

Areas that are accessible only by authorized people usually by the use of a Fire Wall.

Proxy (or) proxy server

A technique used to cache information on a Web server and acts as an intermediary between a Web client and that Web server. It basically holds the most commonly and recently used content from the World Wide Web for users in order to provide quicker access and to increase server security. This is common for an ISP especially if they have a slow link to the Internet. Proxy servers are also constructs that allow direct Internet access from behind a firewall. They open a socket on the server, and allow communication via that socket to the Internet. For example, if your computer is inside a protected network, and you want to browse the Web using Netscape, you would set up a proxy server on a firewall. The proxy server would be configured to allow requests from your computer, trying for port 80, to connect to its port 1080, and it would then redirect all requests to the proper places.

PSD (or) .psd



Measurement of the psychological and lifestyle characteristics of individuals or households.

Puff prints

Screening process using puff inks. After screening, the product is exposed to heat. A chemical additive in the ink causes it to rise, creating a raised surface.

Purchase privilege offer

Term little used. Once commonly applied to selfliquidating food-store promotions akin to the taperedemption or continuity programs, often using punched trade cards.


Self-liquidating direct premium offer.


A polyurethane coating that is added to make garments water resistant.



An additional manufacturing process where the mill rotates 1/4 of a turn to put a crease on the side of the product rather then the front of the product.


A fabric construction in which a layer of down or fiberfill is placed between two layers of fabric, and then held in place by stitching or sealing in a consistent, all-over pattern.

QXD (or) .qxd



Racer back

T-shaped back of a tank, dress or sports bra.

Rack stitch

Knit pattern produced by a shift in the needle bed that creates a herringbone effect.


Raglan sleeve is stitched under the arm and in two parallel lines leading from the armpit to the neck. It makes for ease of movement.

Raglan Sleeve

An athletic cut sleeve set with a diagonal seam from the neck to the underarm. Offers more freedom of movement in comparison with set-in sleeves.


Strong staple fiber of cellulose yielded by the inner bark of the ramie plant. Often used as a less expensive substitute for linen or cotton

Random sample

Single copy of a product with a random imprint.

Raster graphics

Raster-based graphics have become a standard technology and are popularly known by their GIF and JPEG formats. Raster graphics use pixel-by-pixel definitions as opposed to vector graphics which use computer algorithms to describe shapes, lines, animation, etc.


A manufactured fiber composed of regenerated cellulose, derived from wood pulp, cotton linters or other vegetable matter, with a soft hand. Frequently used for shirts and pants.


High absorbency, bright or dull luster, pleasant hand. Does well in brilliant colors.

Redemption center

Store maintained by a trading-stamp company, where customers can redeem filled stamp books for premiums.

Redemption reserve

Funds put aside by a stamp firm or the user of a coupon plan to pay the cost of merchandise for future redemptions – which may come in several years after original issue of stamps or coupons. Also used by food stores in tape programs.

Referral premium

Item offered to customers for helping sell a product or service to a friend or associate

Register marks

Cross-hair marks applied to negatives, artwork, photographs or mechanicals to ensure precise register on the final product.

Registration (hot-stamping)

Process by which two or more hot-stamps are aligned, so the multicolored foils fit the image area perfectly.

Reinforced box

A square sewn at the bottom of a placket to add strength to that area.

Representative (or rep)

Salesperson for an advertising or promotional medium

Reprocessed wool

Wool that has been reclaimed from manufactured products that have not been used by a consumer, including dyed or undyed yarn, and fabric scraps from mills and clothing manufacturers. The wool is returned to fiber form and spun into new yarns, which are used to make fabrics of low to medium quality.

Reserve account

Arrangement whereby a portion of the salesperson’s commission is set aside to compensate for order cancellations and invoicing adjustments.


Density of dots for any given output device. The unit of measurement is dots per inch (dpi).

Restricted line

Product line where a supplier specifies the minimum volume, credit or geographic location of distributors permitted to sell it.


Process of improving/highlighting necessary details in a picture, photograph, print or drawing

Reused wool

Wool that has been reclaimed from manufactured products after they have been used by consumers. The wool is returned to fiber form, cleansed or overdyed, and spun again into new yarns, which are used to make inexpensive low-quality fabrics.


Mirror like inversion of elements on a printing plate in relation to their order on the surface printed from it.

Reverse jersey

Knit that uses the back side of jersey fabric for the face of the garment.


When the buttons on a placket are on the opposite side from a men’s garment. Commonly done on women’s styles.

Rib fabric

A type of knitted fabric that features a vertical “striped” texture.

Rib Knit

A textured knit that has the appearance of vertical lines. It is highly elastic and retains its shape. Commonly used for sleeve and neck bands.

Rib knit

Knitted fabric produced with two sets of needles (double knit) in which the vertical rows of loops (wales) can be seen alternately on the face and back. Stretch in the width is excellent.

Ring spun

Yarn made by continuously twisting and thinning a rope of cotton fibers. The twisting makes the short hairs of cotton stand out, resulting in a stronger yarn with a significantly softer hand.


A shirt featuring ribbed crew neck and sleeve bands in a contrasting color.

Rip-Stop Nylon

A very fine woven fabric, often nylon, with coarse, strong yarns spaced at intervals forming a box so that tears will not spread.

Romance card

Usually a card or small folder containing information relating to the origin or history of the specialty that it accompanies.


Relies on a computer and controller to send messages concerning the desired design to a flat-bed engraving table.


Type of printing, utilizing an etched copper cylinder.


Clear orange coating on an acetate base, used in preparing camera-ready artwork when one or more colors will be used. Also know as amberlith.


Safety program

Promotional program designed to raise safety awareness and recognize those who follow safe onthe- job practices.

Sales contest

Sales-incentive program. The word “contest” is used less today than previously, since direct competition among salespeople is not longer the rule.

Sales incentive

Premium or monetary reward offered to salespeople for attaining a specified performance level.

Sales promotion

Program designed to stimulate immediate action on the part of the consumer, generally by adding value to a purchase or action taken.

Sample rebate

Compensation by a supplier, issued to distributors when they sell a specific minimum amount of specialties of which the distributor has purchased samples.

San wash

Sand is added to the piece of garment washing process to create a subtle weathered look. Results in a soft, lightly brushed feel. Used mainly in woven fabrics

Sand Washed

A process in which the fabric is washed with very fine lava rocks or rubber/silicon balls, resulting in a softer fabric with a relaxed look and reduced shrinkage.

Sandwich Hat/Bill

A hat where there is contrasting trim between the upper and lower part of the visor or bill.


Controls the shrinkage of fabrics to less than 1%.

Sans-serif type

Typestyle without cross strokes at the end of the main strokes.

Saver plan

See “tape plan.”


General term for especially high-quality fabrics of merino wool, usually used for coats and suits. The term originally described fabrics made only from the wool of Saxony sheep, a superior strain of merino developed in Germany.

Scoop Neck

Characterized by a deep, rounded neckline that is significantly deeper than normal necklines. Typically found on women’s shirts.


To impress a mark in a sheet of paper to facilitate folding and help it lie flat.


Series of dots used to reproduce halftones or blended colors. As the percentage of screen increases, the color prints darken

Screen charge

Charge by suppliers for creating a silkscreen of the artwork used for imprinting products.

Screen tints

Process in which shading and tinting are added to a line reproduction.


Imprinting method in which the image is transferred to the printed surface by ink squeegeed through a stenciled screen stretched over a frame. Screens are treated with a light-sensitive emulsion, then film positives are put in contact with the screens and exposed to light. The light hardens the emulsion not covered by the film, leaving a soft area on the screen for the squeegee to force ink through. Also called silkscreening.



Sculpted Hem

A hem that is softly rounded for fashion detail and untucked wear.

Seam Sealed

The process of treating the stitch holes and seams of a garment to prevent leaking and to ensure full waterproof integrity.

Seamless Collar

A collar that is knit in a circle. There are no joining seams on the collar, found in better-made t-shirts.

Search engine

Software system to locate information or to look at information on a Web site based on criteria entered.


Lightweight cotton type, color striped fabric with permanent lengthwise alternating puckered striped and felt stripe sections.

Selective media

Advertising media such as specialty advertising and direct mail that can be targeted to specific limited audiences. Also called targeted media.

Self-Fabric Collar

A collar that is constructed from the same material as the body of the garment.

Self-Fabric Sweatband

Refers to a panel of fabric at the front of a cap that is constructed from the same fabric as the crown of the cap.


Proof-of-purchase premium offered to consumers for a sum of money to cover the cost of premium plus postage and handling.


Premium with a cost only partially covered by the purchase price at which it is offered.


An overcastting technique done on the cut edge of the fabric to prevent unraveling.

Serif type

Any typeface with letters having a cross stroke at the end of the main stroke.

Set-In Sleeve

Most common style of sleeve, which is is sewn into the shoulder, as opposed to the neck.


A separate piece of fabric, making the placket, is sewn onto the shirt.

Set-up charge

Special charges added to certain products in a catalog. It covers the cost of preparing the type for the press and the actual printing.


Software available for downloading on the Internet that you can try before you buy. Users who want to continue to use the program are expected to pay a registration fee (rarely more than U.S. $100). In return they get documentation, technical support, and any updated versions


High-quality worsted suiting fabric with a smooth sleek face and a slightly iridescent sheen, resembling the skin of a shark. Made with a twill weave, and yarns of alternating colors, usually a lighter color with a darker one. It may be plain or woven with fancy patterns.


A turned-over, continuous collar that drapes down slightly in the front.


Refers to the towel’s finish. A sheared surface is created clipping the loops on one side of the towel. Sheared terry is often referred to as having a velour finish. The shearing process creates a plush and smooth finish, which is great for printing or embroidery. The weight of the fabric has a big impact on the overall appearance of the shear. A heavier weight fabric enhances the velour appearance because there is more material to shear.


General term for a tanned hide with the wool still intact. Used to make exceptionally durable outerwear.


A plain-weave cotton fabric with even or close to even thread counts in the warp and weft.


Simplest, most common of the three basic weaves (over one/under one interlacement). It provides a smooth surface for printing. The other basic weaves are satin and twill.

Sherpa Fleece

A knit terry fabric that has been brushed and washed to raise the fibers for a fluffy, plush feel. The thick terry loops stay soft and absorbent over time.

Sherpa fleece

Fleece fabric where the brushed/napped side is used as the face of the garment


Very fine, lustrous wool from the downy soft undercoat of Shetland sheep, raised on the Shetland Islands off the northern coast of Scotland. Available in limited quantities of natural colors and used to make software, knitwear, sportswear, and coats. The term has been used rather loosely by the apparel industry to describe similar fabrics and clothing, especially sweaters, made from coarser types of wool.

Shipping date

Date an order should be shipped from the factory to the purchasing client.


A Web browser plugin which provides for Macromedia Director movies to be viewed on World Wide Web pages. Shockwave is a key component of Macromedia’s solution for interactive professionals who develop digital media for the World Wide Web. If you have created an interactive movie using Macromedia Director, you will need to compress the movie through a program called “Afterburner” before you can use it as Shockwave on a Web site.


Clippings of extra fabric from the production of garments is gathered, sorted by color, then processed into a pulpy material called shoddy. This material is then re-spun into yarn and used to create recycled apparel.

Shopping cart enabled site

Web site with functional shopping cart engine to perform transactions (accept orders).

Shoulder-To-Shoulder Taping

Shoulder seams, as well as neck seam are covered by tape or binding. This reinforces shoulder and neck seams, and reduces separation of the seams.

Side seam

Seams that join the front and back together. If a shirt does not have side seams, it is tubular.

Side Vents

Slits found at the bottom of side seams, used for fashion detailing, as well as comfort and ease of movement.

Side vents

Slits in the bottom side seams of a shirt. (See drop tail)


A natural filament fiber produced by the silkworm in the construction of its cocoon. The shimmering appearance for which silk is prized comes from the fiber’s triangular, prism-like structure, which allows silk fabric to refract incoming light at different angles. Silk is recognized for its fine hand and fluid drape.


Lightweight fabrics with natural, deep luster. Shiny surface. Versatile in weight and texture. Long wearing.

Single- needle hem

A single row of stitches used to hem a garment. Typically not found on better garment because of its lack of finished appearance.


A stitch, requiring a single needle and thread, characterized by its straight-line pathway. A single-needle seam has been finished with a visible row of stitching, single needle, for additional reinforcement and fashion.


A term used to indicate the diameter of a yarn. The smaller the number, the thicker the yarn.


Term used to indicate the diameter of a yarn. The smaller the number, the thicker the yarn.


Initial rough drawing in pencil, ink or color to determine the arrangement of an artwork.

Slash Pockets

A pocket in a garment to which access is provided by a vertical or diagonal slit in the outside of the garment.

Slub Yarn

A yarn of any fiber which is irregular in diameter and characterized by contrasting fat and thin areas along the length of the yarn. The effect may be purposely created to enhance a woven or knitted material, or may occur in error as a yarn flaw.


Buttons that simulate a smokey grey appearance.

Soft Shell

The term Soft Shell is increasingly used to describe garments that combine partial water resistance with partial wind breaking ability. Soft shell fabrics come in numerous varieties with many garments offering a combination, such as a wicking layer. In many cases insulation is combined in an attempt to replace several layers with a single highly flexible one.

Soil Release Finish

A fabric treatment that helps a garment release stains in the wash.


Printed area without type or other illustrations.


A manufactured elastomeric fiber that can be repeatedly stretched over 500% without breaking and will still recover to its original length.

Spec sample

A product sample carrying a prospective buyers’ imprint, produced with the expectation that the prospect will order it.


attained seven certified education units by attending 70 hours of educational offerings.

Specialty advertising

Medium of advertising, sales promotion and motivational communication employing imprinted, useful or decorative products called advertising specialties; a subset of promotional products.

Speculative (spec) sample

Product sample carrying a prospective buyer’s imprint, produced with the expectation that the prospect will order it.

Spot color

Color used usually for accent


Brief promotion within a longer campaign, designed to maintain interest by awarding interim incentives.

Stain Resistance

A fiber or fabric property of resisting spots and stains. Commonly used for industrial or restaurant uniforms.


Controls the penetration of spots and stains.


The actual length of a cotton fiber.

Stat paper

Photo print of an art made by a camera. Use stat paper only on final proofs before going to production.


Same image printed continuously in a pattern on the same sheet of paper.

Stock designs

Digitized generic embroidery designs that are readily available at a cost below that of custom-digitized designs.

Stone wash

Pumice stones (lava rock) are added to the piece or garment washing process resulting in a soft and abraded worn appearance particularly where there are seams.


A finishing process that creates a distressed appearance, including a softer texture, puckering at the seams and slight wrinkling. Garments are tumbled together with stones (usually pumice stones) in larger washers. This process is usually applied to indigo-dyed denim garments. Different sizes of stones can be used and length of washing time can be varied to achieve different effects.

Storm Flap

A piece of fabric that covers and protects an opening, usually a zipper, on an item of clothing. It is designed to add another barrier on more vulnerable parts of the clothing to protect against wind and moisture.

Storm flap

Strip of fabric sewn under or over the front zip or snap closure of outerwear garments to form a barrier against wind and moisture.


Creating a rough outline of what the Web site will look like.

Stratified selection

Separation of a target audience into various levels or strata.


Attaching, putting together or assembling in negative film from the separate elements of an ad, brochure, flyer or other printed materials into one cohesive unit.


A headwear term referring to a cap with buckram added to the crown for structure.


Dye transfer process where the image consists of a colored dye permanently embedded into the material surface of pores. Used to imprint messages, graphics and photographs on a variety of items, primarily mousepads, mugs, T-shirts, caps and trophy medals.

Sublimation Transfer

Method of subliming a dye pattern, through the use of heat, onto polyester fabric from a paper carrier.


A process in which fabric goes through a brushing process to raise the nap and give the garment a soft hand.

Sueded nylon

A fabric that goes through a brushing process to raise the nap and give the garment a soft hand.


Promotional products company which manufactures, imports, converts, imprints, or otherwise produces or processes promotional products offered for sale through promotional products distributors.

Swatch proof

Sample of the material of the product to be purchased, imprinted with the advertising artwork in the colors specified for the imprint.


Chance-based promotion or game for prizes, for which no purchase is required; usually based on randomly drawn numbers.


Satin stitch embroidery. Embroidery remains a government-support industry in Switzerland today.


Tackle twill

Letters or numbers cut from polyester or rayon twill fabric that are commonly used for athletic teams and organizations. Tackle twill appliqués attached to a garment have an adhesive backing that tacks them in place; the edges of the appliqués are then zipzap stitched.


Cotton developed and grown in the Canete’s valley (south of Lima, Peru) and in the central coast of Peru The tanguis seeds produce a plant that has a 40% longer (between 29 mm and 33 mm) and thicker fiber that did not break easily and required little water

Tape plan

More formally, “cash-register-tape redemption plan.” A continuity promotion by supermarkets, offering one or more premiums in return for register tapes, coupons, or stamps representing specified purchases and most often, cash amounts sufficient to make the promotion self-liquidating or profitable.

Taped neck/ shoulders

Referring to a quarter-inch of fabric that is sewn over the inside seams of a shirt’s neck and shoulders. Not only is it considered a more finished look on garments, it also secures the seams and helps maintain shape.

Taped Seams

A strip of fabric sewn to the seam of a garment to prevent distortion. In outerwear, taped seams aid in waterproofing.


A design feature whereby a piece of fabric is used to cleanly cover a seam. The term is used when referring to shoulder-to-shoulder taping.


Woolen fabric made with a plain or twill weave in a variety of different plaid patterns, each belonging to a specific Scottish clan.


Refers to how the fibers are woven and the resulting texture. Used mainly in outerwear garments, Taslan is a durable and water repellent nylon fabric with a slightly shiny surface.


Durable nylon fabric that is generally used for rugged outerwear.

Tattersall check

Simple check pattern with a loud appearance, made with two colors against a white or contrasting background. Gaudy combinations of bold colors are common. Checks are usually about a half-inch square.

Temperature reactive or thermocromatic inks

Process of applying a special ink that disappears to reveal a hidden message when heat is applied. For instance, used on a mug so that when hot liquid is poured into, the message appears or on a glass, so that when cold liquid is poured into it, the message appears.


A fiber made from wood pulp. Tencel gives fabric a very soft, smooth and luxurious hand.


Produced by Courtaulds from the cellulose in harvested wood pulp. Fabrics with Tencel have superior shrinkage control characteristics. The unique properties produce deep vibrant colors.


One trillion bytes.

Terrain cloth

High-density air-textured nylon.

Terry Velour

A pile weave cotton fabric with an uncut pile on one side and a cut pile on the reverse side. It has a soft, plush feel and is water absorbent. Commonly used for towels, robes and apparel.


Any of a half a dozen methods of measuring appeal of a premium in advance of a promotion. Frequently done by personal interviews, sometimes by a mail ballot of split-run newspaper advertising.



Thermal (Engraving)

Melts an image into the metal, based on a die. Often used for small items such as name badges and small signs.

Thermal dye sublimation

Like thermal printers, except pigments are vaporized and float to desired proofing stock. Similar to Thermal Dye Diffusion Transfer, or D2T2.


Means of imprinting in which powder is added to the image to be printed. When heated, the powder fuses with the ink, and the image appears in relief.

TIFF (or) .tif

b>Tagged Image File Format A file format for exchanging bitmapped images (usually scans) between applications

Tint block

A photoengraving used to print tints of any percentage of color.


Preprinted card bound or partially bound into a periodical.


To attach endsheets or other material to the outside of folded sections by machine applications of thin strip of adhesive.


Using a matching color thread to embroider a garment. For example, a navy shirt tonal embroidery would use a matching navy thread to create an embossed look.

Tone on tone

Different shades of the same color as the garment are used for embroidery thread. For example, a navy blue shirt with a light blue and royal blue embroidery.


Natural twisting that occurs when a circular knit fabric is in a relaxed state. A circular knit is knit in a spiral motion and therefore “straight” stripes want to twist. This phenomenon usually occurs in poor quality jacquard knits and is minimized by compacting and the use of stabilizing resins.

Trade advertising

Advertising directed at members of the wholesale or retail trade.

Trade character

Visual identification or personification of a particular brand, merchandise, or advertiser.

Trade stamp

Gummed stamp given by a retailer, usually for each 10 cents of purchase, to be pasted in a save-book or card, redeemable for premiums presented in the stamp-company catalog.

Traffic builder

Specialty or premium designed to get consumers to enter a store or a tradeshow exhibit.


Full-color, translucent, photographic film positive.

Transparent GIF

Transparent GIFs are useful because they appear to blend in smoothly with the user’s display, even if the user has set a background color that differs from that the developer expected. They do this by assigning one color to be transparent — if the Web browser supports transparency, that color will be replaced by the browser’s background color, whatever it may be.

Transparent ink

Printing ink that does not completely conceal the color of the carrying material beneath.


Process of adjusting adjacent colors to account for misregistration, which occurs due to the complex machinery of the press and because materials stretch and shift during printing.

Travel incentive

Trip offered to salespeople or dealers, often tied into sales meetings at resort areas.


A class of knitted fabric that is made from filament or textured yarn. Characteristically, it is dimensionally stable and is often used for swimwear, foundation wear and garments intended for activities such as running and dance.

Tricot Lining

A lining material that can be made from natural or synthetic fibers and has a unique weave that allows it to be smooth on one side white sporting texture on the other.


High-quality worsted fabric with a 63-degree, double twill on the face of the cloth. Belongs to the same family as gabardine, whipcord, covert and cavalry twill. Various weights are used for men’s and women’s clothing.

Trim size

Finished size of a printed piece after waste is trimmed away.

Triple-Needle Stitched

A finish commonly used on a sleeve or bottom hem that uses three needles to create parallel rows of visible stitching, giving the garment a cleaner, more finished look, as well as adding durability.

Trojan Horse

A type of computer virus which comes disguised as a program. It usually happens like this: people download a program from the Internet, for example, because they think want it and think it is of some use, but once they start it up, it contains a virus and will erase your hard drive or wreak havoc on your system. A popular Trojan Horse type virus came in the form of a file called AOL4FREE.COM and the “I Love You” virus is another example. The name comes from the Greek legend of a horse that looks benevolent at first, but really holds trouble.

Tubular Collar

A collar knit in a tube form, so it has no seams.

Tubular Knit

Fabric manufactured in a complete circle without seams.

Tuck Stitch

Refers to the look of the knit where some stitches are actually under the other stitches. Gives the shirt a waffle weave texture and look.

Tuck-In Tails

A shirt constructed so the back hem is longer than the front. This aids in keeping the shirt tucked-in during normal activities.


A Tubular (Some have seams in the back), close-fitting collar that covers the neck. Because of its length, it is worn either turned over or scrunched down on the neck.


Rough durable woolen cloth with irregular slubs or knots on the surface, made with a twill or herringbone weave. Multicolored yarns are produced by adding colored nubs prior to spinning. Early tweeds were characterized by a very hairy face and scratchy hand. Today, many tweeds are flattened and shaven to soften them. Made in various weights and patterns and used for suits, sportswear and coats.


A fabric characterized by micro diagonal ribs producing a soft, smooth finish. Commonly used for casual woven shirts.


A type of weave that is characterized by diagonal patterns throughout the fabric.


One of the three basic weaves (the others are plain and satin). It is characterized by a diagonal rib (twill) generally running upward from left to right (right hand twill). Left hand twill (traditional denim weave) has the diagonal rib running upward from right to left. Twill weaves are used to produce a strong, durable firm fabric.

Twill Tape

Narrow herringbone twill weave tape used as reinforcement at the stress areas – neck, shoulders, pockets – of a garment. It is also used as a design element, often inside plackets

Twill tape

Narrow herringbone twill weave tape used as reinforcement at the stress areas – neck, shoulders, pockets – of a garment. It is also used as a design element, often inside plackets.


Broken twill is a variation on traditional twill resulting in a very soft and flexible fabric.

Twisted yarn

The use of two or more yarns of different colors twisted together to form a single multicolor yarn

Two Ply

A yarn in which its thickness is made up of two layers or strands, adding durability and weight.

Two-Ply Yarn

Two strands of thread are used to form the yarn that is woven into terry loops.

Type transfer

Sheet of type created through a photographic and chemical process which can be transferred onto almost any surface by burnishing the back of the sheet.


General term used to describe the styles of lettering available in typesetting.


To create type of a quality usable for reproduction, whether electronically or mechanically.


Underarm Grommets

Small holes in the armpit area to allow breathability and air circulation.


Number of products less than what was originally ordered.


A headwear term referring to a low profile cap with a naturally low sloping crown. No buckram has been added to the crown for structure.

Unstructured slouch

Caps with no buckram are unstructured. Many of the latest caps have the “floppy” look. Can be scrunched up and stuffed in a back pocket.

Urethane coatings

Water and stain repellents are applied to the nylon fabric surface to add to the appearance of luggage.


Uniform Resource Locater points users to specific information on the Internet.

Use-the-user plan

Premium given to customers for helping sell a product or service to a friend or associate.

UVA-Protective Fabric

A term used to refer to a fabric that resists the ability of ultraviolet rays to penetrate the fabric. Protects the fabric from fading and the wearer’s skin from UV rays.



1. A type of neckline that forms a “V” at the front of the neck. Commonly used in shirts, t shirts and sweaters. 2. Collar that is cut in the shape of the letter “V”.


A section of material in a V shape that is sewn onto a garment directly under the collar, providing support against stretching the neck opening. Also a style detail.


Thin, protective coating applied to a printed sheet for protection, appearance or to prevent fingerprinting.

Vector graphics

Vector graphics use computer algorithms to describe shapes, lines, animation, etc. The technology of vector graphics is growing in popularity because the images are scalable and smaller in file size, a plus for online viewing and downloading. Vector graphics were developed in response to the limitations of raster-based graphics (popularly known as GIF and JPEG) because raster graphics use pixel-by-pixel definitions.

Vegetable (Color Families)

Rich, saturated colors that are used primarily in fall and winter deliveries. They include the colors eggplant, pumpkin and gold that are inspired by the hues of vegetables and fall foliage.


Medium weight, cotton type, dense, cut pile fabric that resembles velvet


Photoprint with halftone dot pattern in place of continuous tone, ready for line reproduction. (See PMI)


An opening in a garment which assists breathability and can aid in ease of decoration, allowing the garment to be hooped and embroidered with no visibility on the inside lining of the garment. Some vents are tacked down and are for fashion purposes only.


Illustration in which the background fades gradually away until it blends into the unprinted paper.


Stain resistant plastic material used for coverings and trims in luggage. Available in a wide range of colors.

Virgin wool

Wool shorn from live sheep that has not been used in any form prior to its being processed into any sort of textile product.


A program which replicates itself on computer systems by incorporating itself into other programs that are shared on a system. Most often thought of as “malicious” viruses are best known for “spreading overnight from one computer to millions of others around the world” and infecting machines causing them to crash. It is important that you take precautions against viruses, for example: get a virus scan program such as the one below, and don’t open any e-mail attachments from people you don’t know.


Waffle Weave

A square pattern woven into a garment.


Lengthwise grain in woven fabric

Wash drawings

Line drawings in which the middle tones have been retained.

Wasted circulation

Media circulation that reaches non-advertiser prospects.

Water Repellant

The ability to resist penetration by water. Not as rigorous a standard as waterproofness. Water repellent fabrics cause water to bead up on their surfaces while allowing insensible perspiration to pass through. Water beads up and rolls off a water-repellent fabric.

Water repellency

Ability to resist penetration by water. Not as rigorous a standard as waterproofness. Water repellent fabrics cause water to bead up on their surfaces while allowing insensible perspiration to pass through. Water beads up and rolls off a water repellent fabric.

Water Resistant

A fabric’s ability to resist moisture.


When a fabric is air-permeable, but blocks the passage of liquid to a certain degree. Fabrics are treated with a type of finish to achieve this effect. Like waterproof fabric, it is very difficult to print on this type of fabric.


Ability to keep water from penetrating but permits water vapor to pass through. There are over 200 fabrics of this type available today, offering a varied combination of waterproofness and water vapor permeability.


When a fabric is impermeable to wetness. It should be noted that a garment can’t be waterproof unless it outwardly exposed seams are sealed. Also, it is difficult, if not impossible, to screen print on this type of fabric.


Ability to keep water from penetrating, but permits water vapor to pass through. There are more than 200 fabrics of this type available today, offering a varied combination of waterproof and water vapor permeability.

WAV File

A WAV file is a digitized sound file.

Weather resistant

Loose term referring primarily to a fabric’s wind resistant and water repellent properties Water resistant fabrics are those that resist the penetration of water. The greater the force of impact as the water hits the fabric surface, the greater the likelihood that it will penetrate the fabric.

Web server

Program that runs on a Web site and replies to users requesting information from that site.

Web site

Location on the World Wide Web that contains information in text and image form

Web-fed press

Press that prints from a continuous roll of paper.


Crosswise grain in a woven fabric. Weft is also known as “fill.”


Visual effect of the thickness or thinness of text, rules or logos.


(Also known as yield)- Expressed in terms of ounces per square yard of fabric. Generally, fabrics weighing less than 4 oz. are considered lightweight, while medium weight is from 4 to 5 oz. and heavyweight is 5 to 6 oz. (although these weight categories vary from fabric to fabric).


1. Strip between a shoe sole and upper through which they are stitched or stapled together. 2. A double edge, strip, insert, or seam for ornament or reinforcement.

Welt collar/cuff

A single ply fabric with a finished edge that is used for collars and cuffs on sport shirts and short sleeved garments.

Welt Cuffs

Cuffs on short sleeve garments formed from a single ply of ribbed fabric with a finished edge. Fabric for welt cuffs is knit in a bolder stitch construction than that of standard 1 x 1 ribs.

Welt cuffs

Achieved when the fabric of the sleeve is folded over and sewn down.


Compact worsted twill fabric with prominent diagonal cords that run from the lower left to the upper right. Long-wearing utility cloth is used for suits, sportswear, and uniforms. It resembles, but is much coarser than, tricotine and gabardine.

White space

Space on a page not occupied by type, pictures or other elements.


Dispersing or spreading of moisture or liquid through a given area by capillary action in a fabric.

Wind guard

Strip of fabric sewn under or over the front zip or snap closure of an outerwear garment to protect against wind and moisture. Also referred to as a Wind flap

Wind Resistant

The ability of a fabric to act against or oppose the penetration of wind or air, without being completely windproof.

Wind shirt

A typically water and wind resistant outerwear piece. Popular for golfers.


Simple, boxy check or plaid pattern using a minimum of colors and thin lines to form large squares or rectangles with clear centers, like windowpanes.


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Wood tone Buttons

Buttons that simulate a wood appearance.


Natural deep luster. Long wearing. Sheds water naturally. Springs back if creased or crushed.


Usually associated with fiber or fabric made from the fleece of sheep or lamb. The term wool can also be applied to all animal hair fibers, including the hair of the Cashmere or Angora goat or the specialty hair fibers of the camel, alpaca, llama or vicuna.

Wool satin

Luxurious worsted fabric with a lustrous face, made with tightly twisted yarns and a satin weave.




Fabric constructed by the interlacing of two or more sets of yarns at right angles to each other.


Fabric constructed by the interlacing of two or more sets of yarns at right angles to each other. Woven fabrics are commonly used for dress shirts and camp shirts.


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Wrinkle Free

Basic process of imparting the wrinkle free finish into the fabric involves applying a resin into the fabric, drying and curing at extremely high temperatures to the desired dimension. Pre-cured wrinkle free means that the finish has been applied to the fabric before the garment has been produced. Post-cure wrinkle free means that the finish has been applied after the garment has been manufactured. Because the post cure wrinkle free process is set into the final pressed garment, it is more popular.

Wrinkle resistant

Controls the wrinkling of fabric.


The basic process for imparting the wrinkle free finish into fabric involves applying a resin into the fabric, drying and curing at extremely high temperatures to the desired dimension, scouring to remove any residual chemicals, and final drying. The application and curing of wrinkle-free may occur before or after the garments are produced. “Pre-cured wrinkle-free” means that the finish has been applied to the fabric before the garment has been manufactured. Because the “post-cure wrinkle-free” means that the finish has been applied after the garment has been manufactured and because the “post-cure wrinkle-free” process is set into the final, pressed garment, it is more popular.


World Wide Web, a global interactive system of text and images that runs over the Internet.


An acronym for What You See Is What You Get, which means that the composite page viewed on the screen of a workstation essentially represents what the printer will output.



Formation of pictures or copies of graphic materials by the action of light on an electrically charged surface in which the image is usually developed with powders.



A neckline which has the shape of a “Y”


Grouping of fibers or filament which is twisted together to make a continuous strand.

Yarn Dyed

A term used when yarn is dyed prior to the weaving or knitting of the garment.


Dyeing that occurs at that yarn stage, before it is made into fabric.


Contoured portion of a garment, usually at the shoulder or hip.


A part of the garment fitted closely to the shoulders. Typically seen on the back as on a dress shirt, but may also be on the front, as on a Western style shirt.